Elizabeth E. Steinberg

Learn More
Situations in which rewards are unexpectedly obtained or withheld represent opportunities for new learning. Often, this learning includes identifying cues that predict reward availability. Unexpected rewards strongly activate midbrain dopamine neurons. This phasic signal is proposed to support learning about antecedent cues by signaling discrepancies(More)
The primary sensory cortex is positioned at a confluence of bottom-up dedicated sensory inputs and top-down inputs related to higher-order sensory features, attentional state, and behavioral reinforcement. We tested whether topographic map plasticity in the adult primary auditory cortex and a secondary auditory area, the suprarhinal auditory field, was(More)
The neural basis of positive reinforcement is often studied in the laboratory using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), a simple behavioral model in which subjects perform an action in order to obtain exogenous stimulation of a specific brain area. Recently we showed that activation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons supports ICSS behavior,(More)
The brain's remarkable capacity to generate cognition and behavior is mediated by an extraordinarily complex set of neural interactions that remain largely mysterious. This complexity poses a significant challenge in developing therapeutic interventions to ameliorate psychiatric disease. Accordingly, few new classes of drugs have been made available for(More)
The structure-guided design of chloride-conducting channelrhodopsins has illuminated mechanisms underlying ion selectivity of this remarkable family of light-activated ion channels. The first generation of chloride-conducting channelrhodopsins, guided in part by development of a structure-informed electrostatic model for pore selectivity, included both the(More)
Dopamine (DA) is known to play essential roles in neural function and behavior. Accordingly, DA neurons have been the focus of intense experimental investigation that has led to many important advances in our understanding of how DA influences these processes. However, it is becoming increasingly appreciated that delineating the precise contributions of DA(More)
Individuals with ASD have significant impairments in adaptive skills, particularly adaptive socialization skills. The present study examined the extent to which 20 items from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Socialization Domain differentiated between ASD and developmentally delayed (DD) groups. Participants included 108 toddlers with ASD or DD under(More)
Graphical Abstract Highlights d VTA dopamine (DA) and GABA neurons receive similar inputs from diverse sources d VTA-DA neurons projecting to different output sites receive biased input d VTA-DA neurons projecting to lateral and medial NAc innervate non-overlapping targets d A top-down anterior cortex/VTA-DA/lateral NAc circuit is reinforcing A combination(More)
  • 1