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BACKGROUND Many trials reported that brief interventions are effective in reducing excessive drinking. However, some trials have been criticised for being clinically unrepresentative and unable to inform clinical practice. OBJECTIVES To assess the effectiveness of brief intervention, delivered in general practice or based primary care, to reduce alcohol(More)
ISSUES Numerous studies have reported that brief interventions delivered in primary care are effective in reducing excessive drinking. However, much of this work has been criticised for being clinically unrepresentative. This review aimed to assess the effectiveness of brief interventions in primary care and determine if outcomes differ between efficacy and(More)
BACKGROUND Research on identifying trials using geographic filters is limited. OBJECTIVES To test the sensitivity and precision of a filter to identify African randomised controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS We searched medline and embase for RCTs published in 2004 using a Cochrane filter for RCTs. The search was limited to HIV/AIDS but irrespective of(More)
BACKGROUND The high levels of healthcare worker shortage is recognised as a severe impediment to increasing patients' access to antiretroviral therapy. This is particularly of concern where the burden of disease is greatest and the access to trained doctors is limited.This review aims to better inform HIV care programmes that are currently underway, and(More)
Previous studies of the associations of measures of occupational lead exposure with measures of semen quality and infertility among male workers have produced conflicting results. The current study was undertaken to examine these associations among a population of workers with a broad range of measures of current and historical lead exposure. Ninety-seven(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the amount of randomised clinical research on various medical conditions is related to the burden of disease and health needs of the local populations in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN Construction and analysis of comprehensive database of randomised controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa based on Medline, the Cochrane(More)
Sperm morphology has always been considered an important tool in evaluating a man's fertilizing potential. The objective of this multicentric study was to evaluate intra- and interindividual variability and between-laboratory variation using the same or different criteria of sperm morphology assessment. Semen samples were obtained from 20 males and 32(More)
BACKGROUND Oral candidiasis (OC) associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection occurs commonly and recurs frequently, often presenting as an initial manifestation of the disease. Left untreated these lesions contribute considerably to the morbidity associated with HIV infection. Interventions aimed at preventing and treating HIV-associated(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in the South African Medical Journal (SAMJ) over a 50-year period from 1948 to 1997 with regard to number, topic and quality. METHODS We hand searched all issues of the SAMJ published during the study period to identify all published RCTs. OUTCOME MEASURES Number, topic and quality of(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to assess whether randomized controlled trials conducted in Africa with collaborators from outside Africa were more closely associated with health conditions that have a burden of disease that is of specific importance to Africa than with conditions of more general global importance or with conditions important to developed(More)