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Plant growth and organ formation depend on the oriented deposition of load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall. Cellulose is synthesized by plasma membrane-bound complexes containing cellulose synthase proteins (CESAs). Here, we establish a role for the cytoskeleton in intracellular trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs) through the(More)
In all land plants, cellulose is synthesized from hexameric plasma membrane complexes. Indirect evidence suggests that in vascular plants the complexes involved in primary wall synthesis contain three distinct cellulose synthase catalytic subunits (CESAs). In this study, we show that CESA3 and CESA6 fused to GFP are expressed in the same cells and at the(More)
Vitamin E (tocopherol) is a powerful antioxidant essential for human health and synthesized only by photosynthetic organisms. The effects of over-expression of tocopherol biosynthetic enzymes have been studied in leaves and seeds, but not in a non-photosynthetic, below-ground plant organ. Genetic and molecular approaches were used to determine if increased(More)
Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) essential modulator (NEMO), a regulatory component of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, controls NF-κB activation through its interaction with ubiquitin chains. We show here that stimulation with interleukin-1 (IL-1) and TNF induces a rapid and transient recruitment of NEMO into punctate structures that are anchored at the cell(More)
Plant growth and development depend on anisotropic cell expansion. Cell wall yielding provides the driving force for cell expansion, and is regulated in part by the oriented deposition of cellulose microfibrils around the cell. Our current understanding of anisotropic cell expansion combines hypotheses generated by more than 50 years of research. Here, we(More)
Plant shoots have thick, polylamellate outer epidermal walls based on crossed layers of cellulose microfibrils, but the involvement of microtubules in such wall lamellation is unclear. Recently, using a long-term movie system in which Arabidopsis seedlings were grown in a biochamber, the tracks along which cortical microtubules move were shown to undergo(More)
Microtubules are classically described as being transverse, which is perpendicular to the direction of cell elongation. However, fixation studies have indicated that microtubules can be variably aligned across the epidermis of elongating shoots. In addition, microtubules are reported to have different orientations on inner and outer epidermal surfaces,(More)
It is generally believed that cell elongation is regulated by cortical microtubules, which guide the movement of cellulose synthase complexes as they secrete cellulose microfibrils into the periplasmic space. Transversely oriented microtubules are predicted to direct the deposition of a parallel array of microfibrils, thus generating a mechanically(More)
New findings reveal that proteins involved in cellulose biosynthesis undergo regulated trafficking between intracellular compartments and the plasma membrane. The coordinated secretion and internalization of these proteins involve both the actin and cortical microtubule cytoskeletons. This regulated trafficking allows the dynamic remodeling of cellulose(More)
The midbody remnant (MBR) that is generated after cytokinetic abscission has recently attracted a lot of attention, because it might have crucial consequences for cell differentiation and tumorigenesis in mammalian cells. In these cells, it has been reported that the MBR is either released into the extracellular medium or retracted into one of the two(More)