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Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects cause debilitating metabolic disorders for which there is no effective treatment. Patients suffering from these diseases often harbour both a wild-type and a mutated subpopulation of mtDNA, a situation termed heteroplasmy. Understanding mtDNA repair mechanisms could facilitate the development of novel therapies to combat(More)
Deregulation of the RAS-RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)-ERK signaling cascade is often caused by somatic mutations in genes encoding proteins which influence the activity of this pathway and include NRAS, KRAS2, FLT3, PTPN11, and BRAF. We report the first comprehensive mutational screen of key(More)
The prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in adults is poor compared with children in terms of complete remission (CR) and leukaemia-free survival. In children in vitro resistance of leukaemic cells to various cytotoxic agents is an independent poor prognostic marker, but the relevance of in vitro drug resistance in adults to poor prognosis has(More)
The search for target genes involved in unbalanced acquired chromosomal abnormalities has been largely unsuccessful, because the breakpoints of these rearrangements are too variable. Here, we use the example of dicentric chromosomes in B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia to show that, despite this heterogeneity, single genes are targeted through a(More)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) specifically induce apoptosis in malignant lymphoblasts and are thus pivotal in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, GC-resistance is a therapeutic problem with an unclear molecular mechanism. We generated approximately 70 GC-resistant sublines from a GC-sensitive B- and a T-ALL cell line and investigated their(More)
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy of childhood. Although current treatment results in long term survival in over 70% of cases there is evidence that as many as 50% could have been cured using a less complex regimen with a lower incidence of long term side effects. In previous studies it has been found that thiopurines given(More)
For most children who relapse with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the prognosis is poor, and there is a need for novel therapies to improve outcome. We screened samples from children with B-lineage ALL entered into the ALL-REZ BFM 2002 clinical trial (www.clinicaltrials.gov, #NCT00114348) for somatic mutations activating the Ras pathway (KRAS, NRAS,(More)
Although the thiopurine drugs 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and 6-thioguanine (6-TG) are well established agents for the treatment of leukemia, controversies remain regarding their main mode of action. Previous evidence has suggested that although 6-TG exerts a cytotoxic effect through incorporation of 6-thioguanine nucleotides into newly synthesized DNA(More)
Intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 (iAMP21) identifies a high-risk subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), requiring intensive treatment to reduce their relapse risk. Improved understanding of the genomic landscape of iAMP21-ALL will ascertain whether these patients may benefit from targeted therapy. We performed whole-exome sequencing(More)
In contrast to most other types of cancer, metastatic testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are cured in most patients using cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. The biochemical mechanisms underlying this sensitivity have not been defined. Drug detoxification can modulate response to chemotherapy in vivo and in vitro, and therefore we measured levels of(More)