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We examined how wide ranges in levels of risk factors for cerebrovascular disease are associated with thickness of the human cerebral cortex in 115 individuals ages 43-83 with no cerebrovascular or neurologic history. Cerebrovascular risk factors included blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, creatinine, and diabetes-related factors. Variables were(More)
Cerebral white matter damage is not only a commonly reported consequence of healthy aging, but is also associated with cognitive decline and dementia. The aetiology of this damage is unclear; however, individuals with hypertension have a greater burden of white matter signal abnormalities (WMSA) on MR imaging than those without hypertension. It is therefore(More)
White matter lesions, typically manifesting as regions of signal intensity abnormality (WMSA) on MRI, increase in frequency with age. However, the role of this damage in cognitive decline and disease is still not clear, as lesion volume has only loosely been associated with clinical status. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to examine the(More)
Prior research has demonstrated links among vascular health and the occurrence of stroke, mild cognitive decline, and dementia in older adults. However, little is known about whether normal variation in vascular indicators may be related to changes in neural tissue integrity. Even less is known about how the brain is affected by cholesterol levels in the(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic misuse of alcohol results in widespread damage to the brain. Prior morphometric studies have examined cortical atrophy in individuals with alcoholism; however, no previous studies have examined alcohol-associated atrophy using cortical thickness measurements to obtain regional mapping of tissue loss across the full cortical surface. (More)
Prior studies have documented a range of brain changes that occur as a result of healthy aging as well as neural alterations due to profound dysregulation in vascular health such as extreme hypertension, cerebrovascular disease and stroke. In contrast, little information exists about the more transitionary state between the normal and abnormal physiology(More)
While it is clear that central nervous system (CNS) lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) adversely affect cognitive functioning, it is also evident that patients without visible lesions (non-CNS SLE) may also exhibit subtle cognitive impairment. The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) has been proposed as a marker of disease severity and(More)
Although hypertension is a major risk factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and is highly prevalent in African Americans, little is known about how blood pressure (BP) affects brain-behavior relationships in this population. In predominantly Caucasian populations, high BP is associated with alterations in frontal-subcortical white matter and in executive(More)
Possession of the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele and diabetes risk are independently related to reduced white matter (WM) integrity that may contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this study is to examine the interactive effects of APOE4 and diabetes risk on later myelinating WM regions among healthy elderly individuals(More)
Decades of research have provided substantial evidence of memory impairments in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), including deficits in the encoding, storage, and retrieval of new information. These findings are not surprising, given the associated underlying neuroanatomy, including the hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal lobe structures.(More)