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NMDA receptors, which regulate synaptic strength and are implicated in learning and memory, consist of several subtypes with distinct subunit compositions and functional properties. To enable spatiotemporally defined, rapid and reproducible manipulation of function of specific subtypes, we engineered a set of photoswitchable GluN subunits ('LiGluNs').(More)
Transient absorption spectroscopy has been used to elucidate the nature of the S1 intermediate state populated following excitation of cob(III)alamin (Cbl(III)) compounds. This state is sensitive both to axial ligation and to solvent polarity. The excited-state lifetime as a function of temperature and solvent environment is used to separate the dynamic and(More)
Phototropins, a class of light-activated protein kinases, are essential for several blue light responses in plants and algae, including phototropism. These proteins contain two internal light, oxygen, and voltage sensitive (LOV) domains, which bind flavin chromophores and undergo a reversible photochemical formation of a cysteinyl-flavin adduct as part of(More)
The ultrafast excited-state dynamics underlying the receptor state photorecovery is resolved in the M100A mutant of the photoactive yellow protein (PYP) from Halorhodospira halophila. The M100A PYP mutant, with its distinctly slower photocycle than wt PYP, allows isolation of the pB signaling state for study of the photodynamics of the protonated(More)
The cationic polysaccharide chitosan is an attractive candidate adjuvant capable of driving potent cell-mediated immunity, but the mechanism by which it acts is not clear. We show that chitosan promotes dendritic cell maturation by inducing type I interferons (IFNs) and enhances antigen-specific T helper 1 (Th1) responses in a type I IFN receptor-dependent(More)
Circuit mapping requires knowledge of both structural and functional connectivity between cells. Although optical tools have been made to assess either the morphology and projections of neurons or their activity and functional connections, few probes integrate this information. We have generated a family of photoactivatable genetically encoded Ca(2+)(More)
Mammalian neurotransmitter-gated receptors can be conjugated to photoswitchable tethered ligands (PTLs) to enable photoactivation, or photoantagonism, while preserving normal function at neuronal synapses. "MAG" PTLs for ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs) are based on an azobenzene photoswitch that is optimally switched into the(More)
The active form of vitamin B6, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), is an important cofactor for numerous enzymes in amine and amino acid metabolism. Presented here is the first femtosecond transient absorption study of free PLP and two Schiff bases, PLP-valine and PLP-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), in solution. Photoexcitation of free PLP leads to efficient(More)
Inter-individual behavioral variation is thought to increase fitness and aid adaptation to environmental change, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We find that variation between individuals in neuromodulatory input contributes to individuality in short-term habituation of the zebrafish (Danio Rerio) acoustic startle response (ASR). ASR(More)