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CD4 T cell responses are crucial to prevent and control viral infection; however, virus-specific CD4 T cell activity is considered to be rapidly lost during many persistent viral infections. This is largely caused by the fact that during viral persistence CD4 T cells do not produce the classical Th1 cytokines associated with control of acute viral(More)
CD4(+) T cell help is essential for primary CD8(+) T cell responses to noninflammatory Ags. IL-2 is one of the principal cytokines made by naive CD4(+) T cells, and we show in this study that it is an essential component of help. Adoptively transferred naive CD4(+) TCR-transgenic OT-II cells supported endogenous primary CD8(+) T cell responses, but(More)
Type I interferons (IFN-I) are critical for antiviral immunity; however, chronic IFN-I signaling is associated with hyperimmune activation and disease progression in persistent infections. We demonstrated in mice that blockade of IFN-I signaling diminished chronic immune activation and immune suppression, restored lymphoid tissue architecture, and increased(More)
Newly activated CD8(+) T cells reprogram their metabolism to meet the extraordinary biosynthetic demands of clonal expansion; however, the signals that mediate metabolic reprogramming remain poorly defined. Here we demonstrate an essential role for sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) in the acquisition of effector-cell metabolism. Without(More)
NOT many times in a century does an existing condition receive wider recognition than has the present-day fact that up and down upon the earth, men, women and children are suffering in unaccustomed numbers; and we should realize that their sufferings are very far from being exclusively physical in character. In some degree, certainly, "the time is out of(More)