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The Caenorhabditis elegans sex determination gene, tra-2, is translationally regulated by elements in the 3'-untranslated region called TGEs. TGEs govern the translation of mRNAs in both invertebrates and vertebrates, indicating that this is a highly conserved mechanism for controlling gene activity. A factor called DRF, found in worm extracts binds the(More)
The post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression underlies several critical developmental phenomena. In metazoa, gene products that are expressed, silenced and packaged during oogenesis govern early developmental processes prior to nascent transcription activation. Furthermore, tissue-specific alternative splicing of several transcription factors(More)
Many crucial decisions, such as the location and timing of cell division, cell-fate determination, and embryonic axes establishment, are made in the early embryo, a time in development when there is often little or no transcription. For this reason, the control of variation in gene expression in the early embryo often relies on post-transcriptional control(More)
The maternal-effect sterile (MES) proteins are maternally supplied regulators of germline development in Caenorhabditis elegans. In the hermaphrodite progeny from mes mutant mothers, the germline dies during larval development. On the basis of the similarities of MES-2 and MES-6 to known transcriptional regulators and on the basis of the effects of mes(More)
C. elegans hermaphrodites make sperm and then oocytes in an otherwise female animal. Gain-of-function mutations in the sex-determining gene tra-2 (tra-2(gf)) transform hermaphrodites into females (spermless hermaphrodites). The tra-2(gf) mutations map to a perfect direct repeat in the 3' untranslated region; each repeat is called a direct repeat element(More)
In Caenorhabditis elegans, the tra-2 sex-determining gene is regulated at the translational level by two 28 nt direct repeat elements (DREs) located in its 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). DRF is a factor that binds the DREs and may be a trans-acting translational regulator of tra-2. Here we identify two genes that are required for the normal pattern of(More)
TRA-1, a member of the GLI family of transcription factors, is required for C. elegans female development. We find that TRA-1 has a sex-specific distribution consistent with its role in female development: nuclear TRA-1 is higher in hermaphrodite intestines and in specific germline regions than in males. TRA-1 patterns rely on nuclear export since treatment(More)
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has two sexes: males and hermaphrodites. Hermaphrodites are essentially female animals that produce sperm and oocytes. In the past few years tremendous progress has been made towards understanding how sexual identity is controlled in the worm. These analyses have revealed that the regulatory pathway controlling sexual(More)
A fragment of the Dictyostelium discoideum myosin heavy chain gene representing heavy meromyosin was coexpressed in Escherichia coli with the entire essential myosin light chain from the scallop. The expressed myosin heavy chain and essential myosin light chain copurify through ammonium sulfate fractionation, anion exchange, and gel filtration(More)
Scallop adductor myosin is regulated by its subunits; the regulatory light chain (R-LC) and essential light chain (E-LC). Myosin light chains suppress muscle activity in the absence of calcium and are responsible for relaxation. The binding of Ca2+ to the myosin triggers contraction by releasing the inhibition imposed on myosin by the light chains. To map(More)