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C. elegans hermaphrodites make sperm and then oocytes in an otherwise female animal. Gain-of-function mutations in the sex-determining gene tra-2 (tra-2(gf)) transform hermaphrodites into females (spermless hermaphrodites). The tra-2(gf) mutations map to a perfect direct repeat in the 3' untranslated region; each repeat is called a direct repeat element(More)
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has two sexes: males and hermaphrodites. Hermaphrodites are essentially female animals that produce sperm and oocytes. In the past few years tremendous progress has been made towards understanding how sexual identity is controlled in the worm. These analyses have revealed that the regulatory pathway controlling sexual(More)
In Caenorhabditis elegans, the tra-2 sex-determining gene is regulated at the translational level by two 28 nt direct repeat elements (DREs) located in its 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). DRF is a factor that binds the DREs and may be a trans-acting translational regulator of tra-2. Here we identify two genes that are required for the normal pattern of(More)
The signal transduction and activation of RNA (STAR) family of RNA-binding proteins, whose members are evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans, are important for a number of developmental decisions. For example, in the mouse, quaking proteins (QKI-5, QKI-6, and QKI-7) are essential for embryogenesis and myelination, whereas a closely related protein(More)
The 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of many eukaryotic mRNAs is essential for their control during early development. Negative translational control elements in 3'UTRs regulate pattern formation, cell fate, and sex determination in a variety of organisms. tra-2 mRNA in Caenorhabditis elegans is required for female development but must be repressed to permit(More)
The GLI protein family is involved in several key developmental processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. The Drosophila GLI protein, Cubitus interuptus (Ci), regulates segment polarity and wing and leg development. In vertebrates, the GLI proteins control neural, lung, bone and gut development. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the GLI family(More)
In Caenorhabditis elegans the two sexes, hermaphrodites and males, are thought to be irreversibly determined at fertilization by the ratio of X chromosomes to sets of autosomes: XX embryos develop as hermaphrodites and XO embryos as males. We show instead that both sex and genotype of C. elegans can be altered postembryonically and that this flexibility(More)
The Japanese quail is a precocial species, and because of its relatively rapid development, sexual maturation in about 40 days after hatching, and prolific breeding capacity, it promises to become an organism well suited for avian research. One stumbling block has been the inability to induce, with any consistency, parental behavior in laboratory stocks.(More)