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DiGeorge syndrome is characterized by cardiovascular, thymus and parathyroid defects and craniofacial anomalies, and is usually caused by a heterozygous deletion of chromosomal region 22q11.2 (del22q11) (ref. 1). A targeted, heterozygous deletion, named Df(16)1, encompassing around 1 megabase of the homologous region in mouse causes cardiovascular(More)
Dysmorphogenesis of the cardiac outflow tract (OFT) causes many congenital heart defects, including those associated with DiGeorge syndrome. Genetic manipulation in the mouse and mutational analysis in patients have shown that Tbx1, a T-box transcription factor, has a key role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Here, we have dissected Tbx1 function(More)
22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is caused by an interstitial chromosomal microdeletion that encompasses about 40 genes. It is the most common of the microdeletion syndromes. The clinical phenotype, which is complex and variable, includes specific congenital defects of the cardiovascular system, craniofacies, and immune system. In early childhood, patients(More)
TBX1 is the major candidate gene for DiGeorge syndrome (DGS). Mouse studies have shown that the Tbx1 gene is haploinsufficient, as expected for a DGS candidate gene, and that it is required for the development of pharyngeal arches and pouches, as predicted by the DGS clinical phenotype. However, a detailed analysis of the cardiovascular phenotype associated(More)
Tbx1 haploinsufficiency causes aortic arch abnormalities in mice because of early growth and remodeling defects of the fourth pharyngeal arch arteries. The function of Tbx1 in the development of these arteries is probably cell non-autonomous, as the gene is not expressed in structural components of the artery but in the surrounding pharyngeal endoderm. We(More)
Identifying the genes that underlie the pathogenesis of chromosome deletion and duplication syndromes is a challenge because the affected chromosomal segment can contain many genes. The identification of genes that are relevant to these disorders often requires the analysis of individuals that carry rare, small deletions, translocations or single-gene(More)
Del22q11 syndrome is caused by heterozygous deletion of an approximately 3 Mb segment of chromosome 22q11.2. Children diagnosed with del22q11 syndrome commonly have learning difficulties, deficits of motor development, cognitive defects and attention deficit disorder. They also have a higher than normal risk for developing psychiatric disorders, mainly(More)
A LightCycler-based PCR-hybridization gyrA mutation assay (GAMA) was developed to rapidly detect gyrA point mutations in multiresistant (MR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104 with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC, 0.25 to 1.0 mg/liter). Ninety-two isolates (49 human, 43 animal) were tested with three individual oligonucleotide(More)
Velo-cardio-facial (VCFS) or Shprintzen syndrome is associated with deletions in a region of chromosome 22q11.2 also deleted in DiGeorge anomaly and some forms of congenital heart disease. Due to the variability of phenotype, the evaluation of the incidence of deletions has been hampered by uncertainty of diagnosis. In this study, 54 patients were diagnosed(More)
The heterozygous chromosome deletion within the band 22q11 (del22q11) is an important cause of congenital cardiovascular defects. It is the genetic basis of DiGeorge syndrome and causes the most common deletion syndrome in humans. Because the deleted region is largely conserved in the mouse, we were able to engineer a chromosome deletion (Df1) spanning a(More)