Elizabeth Ann L. Enninga

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PROBLEM Several pregnancy complications have disparities based on the sex of the fetus. It is unknown whether the sex of the fetus differentially alters the maternal immune milieu, potentially contributing to the observed differences. METHOD OF STUDY Using maternal plasma collected during 38 uncomplicated pregnancies (19 males, 19 females), we compared(More)
The role of the immune system in cancer progression has become increasingly evident over the past decade. Chronic inflammation in the promotion of tumorigenesis is well established, and cancer-associated tolerance/immune evasion has long been appreciated. Recent developments of immunotherapies targeting cancer-associated inflammation and immune tolerance,(More)
Similarities between the pathologic progression of cancer and the physiologic process of placentation (eg, proliferation, invasion, and local/systemic tolerance) have been recognized for many years. Sex hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin, estrogens, progesterone, and others contribute to induction of immunologic tolerance at the beginning of(More)
Melanoma has a propensity for lymphatogenous metastasis. Improved understanding of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) immunological environment may improve outcomes. The immune phenotype of fresh melanoma SLNs (n D 13) were compared to fresh control lymph nodes (n D 13) using flow cytometry. RNA was isolated from CD4 C T cells of the SLN and control lymph node(More)
Galectin-9, a β-galactoside-binding protein, is defined as a negative regulator of T helper 1 (Th1) immune responses, favoring Th2 bias. Systemic immunity in patients with metastatic melanoma is predominantly Th2 biased. We hypothesized that galectin-9 can modulate systemic immunity toward Th2 polarization in patients with advanced melanoma. The presence or(More)
Several recent studies have shown differences in the maternal immune milieu at different phases of pregnancy, but most studies have been cross-sectional or of relatively few time points. Levels of 42 cytokines were determined using a multiplex bead-based assay on archived serum from a cohort of pregnant women (N = 16) at median of 18 time points tested,(More)
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