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BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 8 percent of adults in the United States. Some risk factors--elevated plasma glucose concentrations in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle--are potentially reversible. We hypothesized that modifying these factors with a lifestyle-intervention program or the(More)
11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) interconverts inactive cortisone and active cortisol. Although bidirectional, in vivo it is believed to function as a reductase generating active glucocorticoid at a prereceptor level, enhancing glucocorticoid receptor activation. In this review, we discuss both the genetic and enzymatic(More)
BACKGROUND Congenital adrenal hyperplasia with apparent combined P450C17 and P450C21 deficiency is associated with accumulation of steroid metabolites, indicating impaired activity of 17alpha-hydroxylase and 21-hydroxylase. However, no mutations have been reported in the CYP17 and CYP21 genes, which encode these P450 enzymes. Affected girls are born with(More)
In cortisone reductase deficiency (CRD), activation of cortisone to cortisol does not occur, resulting in adrenocorticotropin-mediated androgen excess and a phenotype resembling polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS; refs. 1,2). This suggests a defect in the gene HSD11B1 encoding 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1), a primary regulator of(More)
As exemplified in patients with Cushing's syndrome, glucocorticoids play an important role in regulating adipose tissue distribution and function, but circulating cortisol concentrations are normal in most patients with obesity. However, human omental adipose stromal cells (ASCs) can generate glucocorticoid locally through the expression of the enzyme 11(More)
OBJECTIVE To observe intracranial pressure in women with idiopathic intracranial hypertension who follow a low energy diet. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Outpatient department and the clinical research facility based at two separate hospitals within the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS 25 women with body mass index (BMI) >25, with active(More)
We sought to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of metabolomic biomarker profiles in neurological conditions (idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), multiple sclerosis (MS) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) compared to controls with either no neurological disease or mixed neurological diseases). Spectra of CSF (n = 87) and serum (n = 72) were acquired(More)
We and others have demonstrated expression of the aldo-keto reductase AKR1C3 in myeloid leukemia cell lines and that inhibitors of the enzyme, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), promote HL-60 differentiation in response to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (D3). Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess personal risk perceptions for developing diabetes among practicing physicians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Little is known about comparative risk perceptions concerning diabetes among medical experts. We administered the new Risk Perception Survey for Developing Diabetes to 535 nondiabetic physicians. The participants were 86% male,(More)
The local generation of active glucocorticoid by NADPH-dependent, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) oxoreductase activity, has emerged as an important factor in regulating hepatic glucose output and visceral adiposity. We have proposed that this NADPH is generated within the endoplasmic reticulum by the enzyme hexose-6-phosphate(More)