Elizabeth A Walker

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BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 8 percent of adults in the United States. Some risk factors--elevated plasma glucose concentrations in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle--are potentially reversible. We hypothesized that modifying these factors with a lifestyle-intervention program or the(More)
In cortisone reductase deficiency (CRD), activation of cortisone to cortisol does not occur, resulting in adrenocorticotropin-mediated androgen excess and a phenotype resembling polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS; refs. 1,2). This suggests a defect in the gene HSD11B1 encoding 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1), a primary regulator of(More)
11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) interconverts inactive cortisone and active cortisol. Although bidirectional, in vivo it is believed to function as a reductase generating active glucocorticoid at a prereceptor level, enhancing glucocorticoid receptor activation. In this review, we discuss both the genetic and enzymatic(More)
The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a randomized clinical trial of prevention of type 2 diabetes in high-risk people. Troglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing agent, was used initially but was discontinued during the trial. Troglitazone therapy was compared with other DPP interventions, considering both the short-term "in-trial" results and the(More)
BACKGROUND Congenital adrenal hyperplasia with apparent combined P450C17 and P450C21 deficiency is associated with accumulation of steroid metabolites, indicating impaired activity of 17alpha-hydroxylase and 21-hydroxylase. However, no mutations have been reported in the CYP17 and CYP21 genes, which encode these P450 enzymes. Affected girls are born with(More)
We and others have demonstrated expression of the aldo-keto reductase AKR1C3 in myeloid leukemia cell lines and that inhibitors of the enzyme, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), promote HL-60 differentiation in response to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (D3). Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of(More)
We present the identification, cloning, and characterization of a self-incompatibility (S) gene from Papaver rhoeas that has no significant homology to any previously reported gene sequences, including S genes from other species. This result suggests that a different self-incompatibility mechanism may be operating in this species and has important(More)
OBJECTIVE To observe intracranial pressure in women with idiopathic intracranial hypertension who follow a low energy diet. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Outpatient department and the clinical research facility based at two separate hospitals within the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS 25 women with body mass index (BMI) >25, with active(More)
As exemplified in patients with Cushing's syndrome, glucocorticoids play an important role in regulating adipose tissue distribution and function, but circulating cortisol concentrations are normal in most patients with obesity. However, human omental adipose stromal cells (ASCs) can generate glucocorticoid locally through the expression of the enzyme 11(More)
Two isozymes of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD) interconvert active cortisol and inactive cortisone. 11 beta-HSD2 (renal) acts only as a dehydrogenase, converting cortisol to cortisone. 11 beta-HSD1 (liver) is a bi-directional enzyme in cell homogenates, whereas in intact cells it typically displays oxo-reductase activity, generating(More)