Elizabeth A. Spencer

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BACKGROUND Previous studies have relied predominantly on the body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) to assess the association of adiposity with the risk of death, but few have examined whether the distribution of body fat contributes to the prediction of death. METHODS We examined the association of(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relation between body mass index (kg/m2) and cancer incidence and mortality. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS 1.2 million UK women recruited into the Million Women Study, aged 50-64 during 1996-2001, and followed up, on average, for 5.4 years for cancer incidence and 7.0 years for cancer mortality. MAIN OUTCOME(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the validity of self-reported height and weight by comparison with measured height and weight in a sample of middle-aged men and women, and to determine the extent of misclassification of body mass index (BMI) arising from differences between self-reported and measured values. DESIGN Analysis of self-reported and measured height and(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine whether adherence to the modified Mediterranean diet, in which unsaturates were substituted for monounsaturates, is associated with longer life expectancy among elderly Europeans. DESIGN Multicentre, prospective cohort study. SETTING Nine European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden,(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes of the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). DESIGN Cohort of men and women recruited through general practices or by post to include a high proportion of non meat-eaters. Dietary, anthropometric and lifestyle data were collected at(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe and compare the consumption of total fish (marine foods) and the fish sub-groups - white fish, fatty fish, very fatty fish, fish products and crustacea, in participants from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of dietary intake using a computerised standardised 24-hour(More)
BACKGROUND A Western diet is associated with breast cancer risk. OBJECTIVE We investigated the relation of meat, egg, and dairy product consumption with breast cancer risk by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). DESIGN Between 1992 and 2003, information on diet was collected from 319,826 women. Disease(More)
Overall dietary patterns have been associated with health and longevity. We used principal component (PC) and cluster analyses to identify the prevailing dietary patterns of 99 744 participants, aged 60 years or older, living in nine European countries and participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Elderly(More)
OBJECTIVE The risk factors for fractures are incompletely understood. An outstanding question concerns the optimal amount of dietary calcium needed to minimise the risk of fracture. DESIGN We examined the associations of dietary calcium and other nutrients with self-reported fracture risk in a prospective cohort study. Nutrient intakes were estimated(More)
BACKGROUND Results of epidemiological studies of dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk have not been consistent, possibly because of attenuation of associations due to measurement error in dietary exposure ascertainment. METHODS To examine the association between dietary fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk, we conducted a prospective case-control(More)