Elizabeth A. Schultz

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As in most dicotyledonous plants, the leaves and cotyledons of Arabidopsis have a closed, reticulate venation pattern. This pattern is proposed to be generated through canalization of the hormone auxin. We have identified two genes, FORKED 1 (FKD1) and FORKED 2 (FKD2), that are necessary for the closed venation pattern: mutations in either gene result in an(More)
We have analyzed the development of leaf shape and vascular pattern in leaves mutant for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) or AS2 and compared the timing of developmental landmarks to cellular response to auxin, as measured by expression of the DR5:beta-glucuronidase (GUS) transgene and to cell division, as measured by expression of the cycB1:GUS transgene. We found(More)
Leaf vein pattern is proposed to be specified by directional auxin transport through presumptive vein cells. Activation of auxin response, which induces downstream genes that entrain auxin transport and lead to vascular differentiation, occurs through a set of transcription factors, the auxin response factors. In the absence of auxin, auxin response factors(More)
The formation of Arabidopsis leaf veins is believed to require canalization of auxin into discrete and continuous cell files to generate a highly reproducible branched and reticulate pattern. During canalization, incipient veins become preferred routes for auxin transport through expression and asymmetric localization of the PINFORMED1 (PIN1) auxin efflux(More)
Ilionguinal-iliohypogastric nerve entrapment was described as early as 1942 as a rare but proven cause of chronic inguinal pain in patients with previous lower abdominal surgery. We describe two cases of patients who presented to the emergency care unit with complaints of chronic lower abdominal pain. Surgical histories revealed known risk factors for(More)
The digitalization of EEGs (electroencephalogram) has showed new possibilities for analyzing electrical activity of brain. This has offered new methods, e.g. multifractal analysis of 1/f(beta) EEG rhythms fluctuations. It is one of highly mathematical methods feasible in routine practice now that modern personal computers (PCs) have reached sufficient(More)
BACKGROUND Hospice and palliative care are underutilized among patients at the end of their lives despite evidence that they improve patient satisfaction and reduce costs. OBJECTIVE To synthesize evidence regarding interventions to increase hospice referral/enrollment. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS We conducted a systematic review of the literature and(More)