Elizabeth A Sara

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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) requires six genes to efficiently immortalize human B cells. We have shown that one of these, EBNA3C, can cooperate with activated (Ha-)ras in co-transfection assays to immortalize and transform rat embryo fibroblasts (REFs). EBNA3C also augmented transformation by (Ha-)ras and a mutant p53 to a similar extent as human papilloma(More)
The brk gene encodes a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that has been found to be overexpressed in approximately two thirds of breast tumours. Using a yeast two-hybrid based screen, we have cloned cDNAs encoding a novel protein, BKS, that is a substrate for the kinase activity of BRK and has the characteristics of an adaptor protein. BKS possesses an N-terminal(More)
The tumor suppressor protein p53 shows growth and transformation suppression functions that are frequently lost by mutant proteins detected in cancers. Using a large series of p53 mutants, we have demonstrated an excellent correlation between transcriptional activation and growth suppression in p53-null human cells. Not all transcriptionally active mutants(More)
The biological effects of mineral particles in both macrophage-like and fibroblast cell lines are described. The several macrophage-like cell lines available are all sensitive to the toxic effects of silica, but not all are equally affected by mineral fibres. The effects of the fibres are partially determined by their ability to interact with the cell(More)
One of the earliest events in pathogenesis by mineral fibres must be an interaction between fibre and cell surfaces. Using a simple technique in which cells in suspension were incubated with fibres and adhesion monitored by separation on a density gradient it has been shown that such interactions occur through two distinct mechanisms. The first, a(More)
Three grades of ceramic fibre have been examined for their composition, structures and biological effect in several in vitro assay systems. The fibres were examined in the 'as-manufactured' state and after heating at 1200 and 1400 degrees C. Devitrification of the fibres at 1200 degrees C probably gave mullite crystals on the surface and caused the(More)
A short and a long fibre sample of amosite asbestos were tested for their effects on cells of the human Type 2 alveolar epithelial cell-line A549 in vitro. The long amosite sample was found to cause a rapid detachment of the epithelial cells live from their substratum. At the highest dose, on average 28% of the cells present were detached in this way.(More)
A sample of amosite asbestos was modified by effectively adding C8 and C18 hydrocarbon chains to the fibre surfaces. The altered fibres interacted less readily with cells in vitro and were less cytotoxic. In whole animals the number of mesotheliomas produced by the C8 material was the same as that with the parent material but the tumours occurred earlier.(More)
We have been examining a number of chemically modified mineral fibers, derived from amosite asbestos, by in vitro methods to clarify the role of the fiber surface in determining biological activity. The various fibers have identical size distributions but differ in their affinities for components of the cell membrane. They were treated with boiling toluene(More)
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