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Locally resident intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are primarily T cells with potent cytolytic and immunoregulatory capacities, which they use to sustain epithelial integrity. Here, we consider that most IEL compartments comprise a variable mixture of two cell types: T cells primed to conventional antigen in the systemic compartment and T cells with(More)
Live attenuated vectors based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (rVSVs) expressing foreign antigens are highly effective vaccines in animal models. In this study, we report that an rVSV (VSV-GMCSF1) expressing high levels of murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from the first position in the viral genome is highly(More)
Between weaning (3 wk of age) and adulthood (7 wk of age), mice develop increased resistance to infection with Eimeria vermiformis, an abundant intestinal parasite that causes coccidiosis. This development of resistance was perturbed in T cell receptor (TCR)delta(-/-) mice, which at 4 wk of age remained largely susceptible to infection and prone to(More)
Infection with pathogenic influenza virus induces severe pulmonary immune pathology, but the specific cell types that cause this have not been determined. We characterized inflammatory cell types in mice that overexpress MCP-1 (CCL2) in the lungs, then examined those cells during influenza infection of wild-type (WT) mice. Lungs of both naive surfactant(More)
Broad-spectrum antiviral drugs are urgently needed to treat individuals infected with new and re-emerging viruses, or with viruses that have developed resistance to antiviral therapies. Mammalian natural host defense peptides (mNHP) are short, usually cationic, peptides that have direct antimicrobial activity, and which in some instances activate(More)
There is great potential for host-based gene expression analysis to impact the early diagnosis of infectious diseases. In particular, the influenza pandemic of 2009 highlighted the challenges and limitations of traditional pathogen-based testing for suspected upper respiratory viral infection. We inoculated human volunteers with either influenza A(More)
Vaccines currently licensed for the prevention of seasonal influenza induce antibodies against the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) contained in the vaccine preparation but require at least 2 weeks after immunization for the development of protective immunity. These vaccines do not induce protective responses quickly enough to blunt the(More)
Macrophages are activated by a variety of microbial and cytokine stimuli. One feature of activation is the induction of class II Ag (Ia) on the cell surface. To understand the intracellular events that occur during activation, we investigated various agents with intracellular activities, and examined their effects on the induction of Ia. We first noted that(More)
BACKGROUND During the recent H1N1 influenza pandemic, excess morbidity and mortality was seen in young but not older adults suggesting that prior infection with influenza strains may have protected older subjects. In contrast, a history of recent seasonal trivalent vaccine in younger adults was not associated with protection. METHODS AND FINDINGS To study(More)
In an earlier study, our group vaccinated rhesus macaques with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors expressing Gag, Pol, and Env proteins from a hybrid simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV). This was followed by a single boost with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vectors expressing the same proteins. Following challenge with SHIV89.6P,(More)