Learn More
Broad-spectrum antiviral drugs are urgently needed to treat individuals infected with new and re-emerging viruses, or with viruses that have developed resistance to antiviral therapies. Mammalian natural host defense peptides (mNHP) are short, usually cationic, peptides that have direct antimicrobial activity, and which in some instances activate(More)
Locally resident intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are primarily T cells with potent cytolytic and immunoregulatory capacities, which they use to sustain epithelial integrity. Here, we consider that most IEL compartments comprise a variable mixture of two cell types: T cells primed to conventional antigen in the systemic compartment and T cells with(More)
Infection with pathogenic influenza virus induces severe pulmonary immune pathology, but the specific cell types that cause this have not been determined. We characterized inflammatory cell types in mice that overexpress MCP-1 (CCL2) in the lungs, then examined those cells during influenza infection of wild-type (WT) mice. Lungs of both naive surfactant(More)
Previous studies have shown that vaccination and boosting of rhesus macaques with attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors encoding Env and Gag proteins of simian immunodeficiency virus-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) hybrid viruses protect rhesus macaques from AIDS after challenge with the highly pathogenic SHIV 89.6P (23). In the present(More)
BACKGROUND During the recent H1N1 influenza pandemic, excess morbidity and mortality was seen in young but not older adults suggesting that prior infection with influenza strains may have protected older subjects. In contrast, a history of recent seasonal trivalent vaccine in younger adults was not associated with protection. METHODS AND FINDINGS To study(More)
Live attenuated vectors based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (rVSVs) expressing foreign antigens are highly effective vaccines in animal models. In this study, we report that an rVSV (VSV-GMCSF1) expressing high levels of murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from the first position in the viral genome is highly(More)
Live attenuated vaccine vectors based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) are effective in several viral disease models. In this study, we asked if a VSV vector capable of only a single cycle of replication might be an effective alternative to replication-competent VSV vectors. We compared the cellular immune responses to human immunodeficiency(More)
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) matrix (M) protein blocks host mRNA export from the nucleus and thereby inhibits interferon induction in infected cells. M mutants with mutations of methionine 51 (M51) lack this shutoff function. We examined pathogenesis of a VSV M mutant with a deletion of M51 (VSVDeltaM51) after intranasal infection of BALB/c mice and(More)
In an earlier study, our group vaccinated rhesus macaques with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors expressing Gag, Pol, and Env proteins from a hybrid simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV). This was followed by a single boost with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vectors expressing the same proteins. Following challenge with SHIV89.6P,(More)
There is great potential for host-based gene expression analysis to impact the early diagnosis of infectious diseases. In particular, the influenza pandemic of 2009 highlighted the challenges and limitations of traditional pathogen-based testing for suspected upper respiratory viral infection. We inoculated human volunteers with either influenza A(More)