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Broad-spectrum antiviral drugs are urgently needed to treat individuals infected with new and re-emerging viruses, or with viruses that have developed resistance to antiviral therapies. Mammalian natural host defense peptides (mNHP) are short, usually cationic, peptides that have direct antimicrobial activity, and which in some instances activate(More)
Infection with pathogenic influenza virus induces severe pulmonary immune pathology, but the specific cell types that cause this have not been determined. We characterized inflammatory cell types in mice that overexpress MCP-1 (CCL2) in the lungs, then examined those cells during influenza infection of wild-type (WT) mice. Lungs of both naive surfactant(More)
BACKGROUND During the recent H1N1 influenza pandemic, excess morbidity and mortality was seen in young but not older adults suggesting that prior infection with influenza strains may have protected older subjects. In contrast, a history of recent seasonal trivalent vaccine in younger adults was not associated with protection. METHODS AND FINDINGS To study(More)
There is great potential for host-based gene expression analysis to impact the early diagnosis of infectious diseases. In particular, the influenza pandemic of 2009 highlighted the challenges and limitations of traditional pathogen-based testing for suspected upper respiratory viral infection. We inoculated human volunteers with either influenza A(More)
Live attenuated vaccine vectors based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) are effective in several viral disease models. In this study, we asked if a VSV vector capable of only a single cycle of replication might be an effective alternative to replication-competent VSV vectors. We compared the cellular immune responses to human immunodeficiency(More)
CD4 Th cells play critical roles in stimulating Ab production and in generating primary or maintaining memory CTL. The requirement for CD4 help in generating and maintaining CTL responses has been reported to vary depending on the vector or method used for immunization. In this study, we examined the requirement for CD4 T cell help in generating and(More)
BACKGROUND The rate of emergence of human pathogens is steadily increasing; most of these novel agents originate in wildlife. Bats, remarkably, are the natural reservoirs of many of the most pathogenic viruses in humans. There are two bat genome projects currently underway, a circumstance that promises to speed the discovery host factors important in the(More)
Infection with influenza virus induces severe pulmonary immune pathology that leads to substantial human mortality. Although antiviral therapy is effective in preventing infection, no current therapy can prevent or treat influenza-induced lung injury. Previously, we reported that influenza-induced pulmonary immune pathology is mediated by inflammatory(More)
Experimental vaccines based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) expressing foreign viral proteins are protective in several animal disease models. Although these attenuated viruses are nonpathogenic in nonhuman primates when given by nasal, oral, or intramuscular routes, they are pathogenic in mice when given intranasally, and further vector(More)
Between weaning (3 wk of age) and adulthood (7 wk of age), mice develop increased resistance to infection with Eimeria vermiformis , an abundant intestinal parasite that causes coccidiosis. This development of resistance was perturbed in T cell receptor (TCR) ␦ Ϫ / Ϫ mice, which at 4 wk of age remained largely susceptible to infection and prone to(More)