Elizabeth A. Ramsburg

Learn More
Locally resident intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are primarily T cells with potent cytolytic and immunoregulatory capacities, which they use to sustain epithelial integrity. Here, we consider that most IEL compartments comprise a variable mixture of two cell types: T cells primed to conventional antigen in the systemic compartment and T cells with(More)
Infection with pathogenic influenza virus induces severe pulmonary immune pathology, but the specific cell types that cause this have not been determined. We characterized inflammatory cell types in mice that overexpress MCP-1 (CCL2) in the lungs, then examined those cells during influenza infection of wild-type (WT) mice. Lungs of both naive surfactant(More)
Live attenuated vectors based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (rVSVs) expressing foreign antigens are highly effective vaccines in animal models. In this study, we report that an rVSV (VSV-GMCSF1) expressing high levels of murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from the first position in the viral genome is highly(More)
There is great potential for host-based gene expression analysis to impact the early diagnosis of infectious diseases. In particular, the influenza pandemic of 2009 highlighted the challenges and limitations of traditional pathogen-based testing for suspected upper respiratory viral infection. We inoculated human volunteers with either influenza A(More)
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) matrix (M) protein blocks host mRNA export from the nucleus and thereby inhibits interferon induction in infected cells. M mutants with mutations of methionine 51 (M51) lack this shutoff function. We examined pathogenesis of a VSV M mutant with a deletion of M51 (VSVDeltaM51) after intranasal infection of BALB/c mice and(More)
Between weaning (3 wk of age) and adulthood (7 wk of age), mice develop increased resistance to infection with Eimeria vermiformis, an abundant intestinal parasite that causes coccidiosis. This development of resistance was perturbed in T cell receptor (TCR)delta(-/-) mice, which at 4 wk of age remained largely susceptible to infection and prone to(More)
BACKGROUND During the recent H1N1 influenza pandemic, excess morbidity and mortality was seen in young but not older adults suggesting that prior infection with influenza strains may have protected older subjects. In contrast, a history of recent seasonal trivalent vaccine in younger adults was not associated with protection. METHODS AND FINDINGS To study(More)
Vaccines currently licensed for the prevention of seasonal influenza induce antibodies against the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) contained in the vaccine preparation but require at least 2 weeks after immunization for the development of protective immunity. These vaccines do not induce protective responses quickly enough to blunt the(More)
Live attenuated vaccine vectors based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) are effective in several viral disease models. In this study, we asked if a VSV vector capable of only a single cycle of replication might be an effective alternative to replication-competent VSV vectors. We compared the cellular immune responses to human immunodeficiency(More)
Experimental vaccines based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) expressing foreign viral proteins are protective in several animal disease models. Although these attenuated viruses are nonpathogenic in nonhuman primates when given by nasal, oral, or intramuscular routes, they are pathogenic in mice when given intranasally, and further vector(More)