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OBJECTIVE To predict the impact on tobacco use in the US of a "harm reduction" policy that requires that the smokeless tobacco product meet low nitrosamine standards, but could be marketed with a warning label consistent with the evidence of relative health risks. METHODS Low nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (LN-SLT) and cigarette use are predicted by a(More)
BACKGROUND Between September 2012 and 22 October 2013, 144 laboratory-confirmed and 17 probable MERS-CoV cases from nine countries were notified to WHO. METHODS We summarize what is known about the epidemiology, virology, phylogeny and emergence of MERS-CoV to inform public health policies. RESULTS The median age of patients (n=161) was 50 years (range(More)
BACKGROUND The threat posed by highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses to humans remains significant, given the continued occurrence of sporadic human cases (499 human cases in 15 countries) with a high case fatality rate (approximately 60%), the endemicity in poultry populations in several countries, and the potential for reassortment with the(More)
To identify environmental sites commonly contaminated by avian influenza virus A (H5N1) in live-bird markets in Indonesia, we investigated 83 markets in 3 provinces in Indonesia. At each market, samples were collected from up to 27 poultry-related sites to assess the extent of contamination. Samples were tested by using real-time reverse transcription-PCR(More)
For the past 10 years, animal health experts and human health experts have been gaining experience in the technical aspects of avian influenza in mostly separate fora. More recently, in 2006, in a meeting of the small WHO Working Group on Influenza Research at the Human Animal Interface (Meeting report available from:(More)
ii POLICY's Working Paper Series is designed to make results of technical analyses, research studies, and literature reviews quickly available to interested parties. Papers in the series have not necessarily been widely reviewed, and in some cases, are reports of work in progress. As such, comments and suggestions are welcome. The views expressed in the(More)
Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and spread of avian influenza viruses. However, surveillance for these viruses in wild birds is sporadic, geographically biased, and often limited to the last outbreak virus. To identify opportunities to optimize wild bird surveillance for understanding viral diversity, we reviewed responses to a(More)
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps(More)