Elizabeth A. Milward

Learn More
Western blots of normal human platelets, employing a monoclonal antibody raised against the full-length amyloid precursor protein of Alzheimer's disease (APP695), revealed major bands of 100-110 and 120-130 kDa in both cytosolic, membrane, and released fractions. These species were similar in size to forms seen in brain preparations and in plasma. There was(More)
Preoligodendrocytes have been described in cultures and tissue prints of adult human white matter (Armstrong et al., 1992). To characterize further these precursors of human oligodendrocytes, we have investigated whether they express genes playing a critical role in oligodendrocyte development. In the intact human brain, platelet-derived growth factor(More)
This aim of the present study was to identify whether apoptotic features relate to the degree of cortical neuronal loss in cases with variable cortical degeneration. Neuronal apoptosis was assessed using histochemical and morphological criteria in cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=7) or Lewy bodies (n=11) compared with controls (n=11). AD cases had both(More)
Lewy bodies are made from insoluble, phosphorylated α-synuclein, but the earliest changes that precipitate such pathology still remain conjecture. In this study, we quantify and identify relationships between the levels of the main pathologic form of phosphorylated α-synuclein over the course of Parkinson’s disease in regions affected early through to(More)
The effects of systemic iron overload on the brain are unclear. Microarray analysis of brain gene expression in mice following short-term iron supplementation revealed altered expression of 287 genes, although most changes were small. Transcripts for the iron storage protein ferritin light chain increased 20% (p=0.002) and transcripts for iron regulatory(More)
Iron is essential in the brain, yet too much iron can be toxic. Tight regulation of iron in the brain may involve intrinsic mechanisms that control internal homeostasis independent of systemic iron status. Iron abnormalities occur in various neurological disorders, usually with symptoms or neuropathology associated with movement impairment or behavioral(More)
Derivative myelin associated glycoprotein (dMAG) results from proteolysis of transmembrane MAG and can inhibit axonal growth. We have tested the ability of certain matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) elevated with inflammatory and demyelinating diseases to cleave MAG. We show MMP-2, MMP-7 and MMP-9, but not MMP-1, cleave recombinant human MAG. Cleavage by(More)
The beta A4 protein, the major component of the amyloid deposition characterizing Alzheimer's disease, derives from the amyloid protein precursor (APP), an integral membrane protein with soluble derivatives. The function of APP is unknown. Both soluble and membrane-associated human brain APP (10(-10) M) significantly increased (P less than 0.025) neurite(More)
The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are expressed in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli and other triggers. The MMPs cleave numerous substrates including extracellular matrix components, cytokines and growth factors. In the CNS, while most studied in the context of disease, the many physiological functions of the MMPs are now becoming appreciated. This(More)
Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is characterized by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes; however, variation in disease expression suggests that there are potential modifying factors. Polymorphisms of the HFE gene, which cause the iron overload disorder hereditary haemochromatosis, have been proposed as potential risk factors(More)