Elizabeth A. Milward

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The beta A4 protein, the major component of the amyloid deposition characterizing Alzheimer's disease, derives from the amyloid protein precursor (APP), an integral membrane protein with soluble derivatives. The function of APP is unknown. Both soluble and membrane-associated human brain APP (10(-10) M) significantly increased (P less than 0.025) neurite(More)
Transplantation of cells into the CNS of human patients with neurodegenerative disorders offers a radical new approach to the treatment of previously incurable diseases. Considerable success has been achieved in Parkinson's disease following transplantation of human fetal dopaminergic neurons. Disorders of myelination of the brain, of either inherited or(More)
Studies of iron overload in humans and animals suggest that brain iron concentrations may be related in a regionally specific way to body iron status. However, few quantitative studies have investigated the associations between peripheral and regional brain iron in a normal elderly cohort. To examine these relationships, we used MRI to measure the proton(More)
This aim of the present study was to identify whether apoptotic features relate to the degree of cortical neuronal loss in cases with variable cortical degeneration. Neuronal apoptosis was assessed using histochemical and morphological criteria in cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=7) or Lewy bodies (n= 11) compared with controls (n=11). AD cases had(More)
BACKGROUND Recent Alzheimer's disease (AD) research has focused on finding biomarkers to identify disease at the pre-clinical stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), allowing treatment to be initiated before irreversible damage occurs. Many studies have examined brain imaging or cerebrospinal fluid but there is also growing interest in blood biomarkers.(More)
The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are expressed in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli and other triggers. The MMPs cleave numerous substrates including extracellular matrix components, cytokines and growth factors. In the CNS, while most studied in the context of disease, the many physiological functions of the MMPs are now becoming appreciated. This(More)
The effects of systemic iron overload on the brain are unclear. Microarray analysis of brain gene expression in mice following short-term iron supplementation revealed altered expression of 287 genes, although most changes were small. Transcripts for the iron storage protein ferritin light chain increased 20% (p=0.002) and transcripts for iron regulatory(More)
Iron is essential in the brain, yet too much iron can be toxic. Tight regulation of iron in the brain may involve intrinsic mechanisms that control internal homeostasis independent of systemic iron status. Iron abnormalities occur in various neurological disorders, usually with symptoms or neuropathology associated with movement impairment or behavioral(More)
Insoluble alpha-synuclein plays a central role in Lewy body diseases, with considerable controversy as to whether it plays a similar role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We assessed the tissue location and solubility of cortical alpha-synuclein in AD (without Lewy body formation) compared with controls, using sequential extraction procedures and Western(More)
Microglial cell activation, myelin alteration, and abundant tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha message have been observed in the brains of some human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected and demented patients. We therefore used cultures of purified human microglia and oligodendrocytes derived from adult human brain to examine the role of TNF-alpha(More)