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PURPOSE The 10-diopter (D) fixation test is a useful test for detecting amblyopia in children without a manifest deviation and in whom a reliable visual acuity assessment is difficult. The 10 prism diopter is conventionally placed base down. METHODS Seventeen children were studied over a 12-month period to determine the effect of prism orientation on the(More)
OBJECTIVES To establish the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in normal fibroglandular breast tissue and to assess variation in ADC values with phase of the menstrual cycle and menopausal status. METHODS Thirty-one volunteers (13 premenopausal, 18 postmenopausal) underwent magnetic resonance twice (interval 11-22 days)(More)
We report a series of 15 children, six male and nine female, of average age 20 months, seen at a paediatric orthopaedic clinic with torticollis. Orthopaedic examination revealed a normal range of neck movement in all cases but in seven there was palpable tightness in the absence of true shortening or contracture of the sternomastoid muscle. The patients(More)
Percutaneous image-guided breast biopsy is widely practised to evaluate predominantly non-palpable breast lesions. There has been steady development in percutaneous biopsy techniques. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was the original method of sampling, followed in the early 1990s by large core needle biopsy. The accuracy of both has been improved by(More)
Functional magnetic resonance (MR) encompasses a spectrum of techniques that depict physiological and molecular processes before morphological changes are visible on conventional imaging. As understanding of the pathophysiological and biomolecular processes involved in breast malignancies evolves, newer functional MR techniques can be employed that define(More)
We aim to identify preoperative factors at diagnosis which could predict whether women undergoing wide local excision (WLE) would require further operations. 1593 screen-detected invasive and non-invasive breast cancers were reviewed. Age, presence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive cancer size on mammography, mammographic sign, tumour type, grade(More)
PURPOSE To document the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of fibroglandular breast tissue in women at high-risk of developing breast cancer and investigate the relationship between ADC and breast density. MATERIALS AND METHODS Local research ethics approval was obtained. A total of 33 high-risk women including 17 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (mean age, 43(More)
AIMS To examine the postoperative stability of inferior rectus recession, with particular reference to the incidence of progressive overcorrection. METHODS The results of consecutive patients undergoing inferior rectus recession over a 3 year period were reviewed. RESULTS 21 patients underwent inferior rectus recession, using an adjustable suture(More)
Two patients who presented with compensatory head postures and diplopia are described. They both had marked unilateral superior oblique overaction, in one patient due to a large, incomitant skew deviation. Each underwent a superior oblique tendon lengthening procedure using a segment of silicone 240 retinal band as an expander, in combination with a(More)