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Overactivation of calcium-activated neutral protease (calpain) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several degenerative conditions, including stroke, myocardial ischemia, neuromuscular degeneration, and cataract formation. Alpha-mercaptoacrylate derivatives (exemplified by PD150606), with potent and selective inhibitory actions against calpain,(More)
HIV-1 protease has been identified as a significant target enzyme in AIDS research. While numerous peptide-derived inhibitors have been described, the identification of a nonpeptide inhibitor remains an important goal. Using an HIV-1 protease mass screening technique, 4-hydroxy-3-(3-phenoxypropyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (1) was identified as a nonpeptide(More)
5,6-Dihydro-2H-pyran-2-ones are potent inhibitors of HIV-1 protease, which bind to the S1, S2, S1', and S2' pockets and have a unique binding mode with the catalytic aspartyl groups and the flap region of the enzyme. Efforts to explore 3-position heterocyclic scaffolds that bind to the S1' and S2' pockets have provided a number of selected analogs that(More)
Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) exhibit aberrant activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) KIT. The efficacy of the inhibitors imatinib mesylate and sunitinib malate in GIST patients has been linked to their inhibition of these mutant KIT proteins. However, patients on imatinib can acquire secondary KIT mutations that render the protein(More)
The system L transporter is generally considered to be one of the major Na(+)-independent carriers for large neutral alpha-amino acids in mammalian cells. However, we found that cultured astrocytes from rat brain cortex accumulate gabapentin, a gamma-amino acid, predominately by this alpha-amino acid transport system. Uptake of gabapentin by system L(More)
Angiotensin II, Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-His-Pro-Phe, binds its receptor with a postulated turn centered at residue four. Analogs of angiotensin II which contain a disulfide bridge between the side chains of residues 3 and 5 retain significant activity consistent with this hypothesis. Incorporation of 4-mercaptoproline residues, a hybrid, or chimeric amino acid(More)
Saccharopepsin is a vacuolar aspartic proteinase involved in activation of a number of hydrolases. The enzyme has great structural homology to mammalian aspartic proteinases including human renin and we have used it as a model system to study the binding of renin inhibitors by X-ray crystallography. Five medium-to-high resolution structures of(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in diseases such as arthritis and cancer. Among these enzymes, stromelysin-1 can also activate the proenzymes of other MMPs, making it an attractive target for pharmaceutical design. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to analyze the binding of three inhibitors to the stromelysin catalytic domain(More)
Metallothionein (MT) has provided nature with a small molecule which exhibits multiple facets. The distinct arrangement of cysteine residues which occurs within the two domains of MT confers predisposed metal specificity upon each domain. Furthermore, subtle changes in primary sequence may be built onto the metal cluster scaffold. These not only bestow(More)