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DiGeorge syndrome is characterized by cardiovascular, thymus and parathyroid defects and craniofacial anomalies, and is usually caused by a heterozygous deletion of chromosomal region 22q11.2 (del22q11) (ref. 1). A targeted, heterozygous deletion, named Df(16)1, encompassing around 1 megabase of the homologous region in mouse causes cardiovascular(More)
During embryonic life, the initially paired pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs) follow a precisely orchestrated program of persistence and regression that leads to the formation of the mature aortic arch and great vessels. When this program fails, specific cardiovascular defects arise that may be life threatening or mild, according to the identity of the(More)
TBX1 is thought to be a critical gene in the pathogenesis of del22q11/DiGeorge syndrome (DGS). Morphological abnormalities of the external ear and hearing impairment (conductive or sensorineural) affect the majority of patients. Here we show that homozygous mutation of the mouse homolog Tbx1 is associated with severe inner ear defects that prevent the(More)
The heterozygous chromosome deletion within the band 22q11 (del22q11) is an important cause of congenital cardiovascular defects. It is the genetic basis of DiGeorge syndrome and causes the most common deletion syndrome in humans. Because the deleted region is largely conserved in the mouse, we were able to engineer a chromosome deletion (Df1) spanning a(More)
Del22q11 syndrome is caused by heterozygous deletion of an approximately 3 Mb segment of chromosome 22q11.2. Children diagnosed with del22q11 syndrome commonly have learning difficulties, deficits of motor development, cognitive defects and attention deficit disorder. They also have a higher than normal risk for developing psychiatric disorders, mainly(More)
TBX1 is the major candidate gene for DiGeorge syndrome (DGS). Mouse studies have shown that the Tbx1 gene is haploinsufficient, as expected for a DGS candidate gene, and that it is required for the development of pharyngeal arches and pouches, as predicted by the DGS clinical phenotype. However, a detailed analysis of the cardiovascular phenotype associated(More)
Chromosome 22q11.2 heterozygous deletions cause the most common deletion syndrome, including the DiGeorge syndrome phenotype. Using a mouse model of this deletion (named Df1) we show that the aortic arch patterning defects that occur in heterozygously deleted mice (Df1/+) are associated with a differentiation impairment of vascular smooth muscle in the 4th(More)
Gscl encodes a Goosecoid-related homeodomain protein that is expressed during mouse embryogenesis. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry studies show that Gscl is expressed in the pons region of the developing central nervous system and primordial germ cells. Gscl expression is also detected in a subset of adult tissues, including brain, eye,(More)
From July through September 2000, patients in five European countries were infected with a multidrug-resistant strain of Salmonella Typhimurium DT204b. Epidemiologic investigations were facilitated by the transmission of electronic images (Tagged Image Files) of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. This investigation highlights the importance of(More)
Subcutaneous and intracranial VMDk tumours were treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) using a new sensitiser, m-THPP. Subcutaneous tumours were highly sensitive to PDT but intracranial tumours were much more resistant, requiring a 30-fold increase in sensitiser dose to produce equivalent levels of necrosis. Resistance of intracerebral tumours was not due(More)