Elizabeth A Hale

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PROBLEM Cytokines form an important communication network between the mother and fetus. Defining the significance of these factors requires an understanding of their constitutive expression by maternal and fetal tissues. This study examines cytokine expression by human trophoblast. METHODS A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)(More)
Gangliosides are sialo-glycosphingolipids that play important roles in the interaction of cells with their environment and are thus involved in the regulation of many cellular events. Sialic acid residues are important for the conformation of a glycomolecule, their structural stability and their functions. Although decreased brain ganglioside sialic acid(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to determine whether placental cytokine expression is altered in patients with preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN Whole placental tissue was collected at cesarean delivery, and total ribonucleic acid was extracted. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine cytokine expression. Product bands were quantitated by(More)
Fear to predictable threat and anxiety to unpredictable threat reflect distinct processes mediated by different brain structures, the central nucleus of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), respectively. This study tested the hypothesis that the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF1) antagonist GSK561679 differentially reduces(More)
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a T-helper type-2 (Th2) cytokine noted for its ability to suppress cytokine synthesis by T-helper type-1 (Th1) cells. IL-10 may play a role in pregnancy immunotolerance through the establishment of a Th2 cytokine bias at the maternal-fetal interface. This study examines the expression and production of IL-10 by normal and malignant(More)
PROBLEM T-helper 2 (TH2)-type cytokines [i.e., interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-13] and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta are expressed by the murine decidua and/or placenta and are likely to suppress inflammatory cytokine [i.e., IL-2, interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-1 alpha, and IL-1 beta] production at the maternal-fetal(More)
Behavioural pattern separation (BPS), the ability to distinguish among similar stimuli based on subtle physical differences, has been used to study the mechanism underlying stimulus generalisation. Fear overgeneralisation is often observed in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders. However, the relationship between(More)
Clusterin is a N-glycosylated sialoglycoprotein present in rat brain cells. Clusterin, which elicits aggregation in a wide variety of cells, has been suggested to play an important role in synaptic remodeling through its cell adhesion property or lipid transport capacity in the brain. Sialic acid residues in clusterin may be responsible for its structural(More)
We have previously shown that chronic ethanol treatment impairs the glycosylation of proteins in the rat liver. Changes in the microheterogeneity of transferrin, a N-sialoprotein under chronic alcohol consumption are well established. Apolipoprotein J, another N-glycoprotein, is a normal component of plasma high-density lipoproteins in the rat and human.(More)
Although plasma carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is considered a viable biochemical marker for chronic alcohol consumption, it is valid only when an individual's daily alcohol consumption exceeds 60 g. In addition, it is less sensitive in women drinkers than in men drinkers. We have established that chronic alcohol consumption impairs the hepatic(More)