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B-RAF is the most frequently mutated protein kinase in human cancers. The finding that oncogenic mutations in BRAF are common in melanoma, followed by the demonstration that these tumours are dependent on the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, offered hope that inhibition of B-RAF kinase activity could benefit melanoma patients. Herein, we describe the structure-guided(More)
BACKGROUND Expression of the colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) gene is elevated in most tenosynovial giant-cell tumors. This observation has led to the discovery and clinical development of therapy targeting the CSF1 receptor (CSF1R). METHODS Using x-ray co-crystallography to guide our drug-discovery research, we generated a potent, selective CSF1R(More)
BACKGROUND Three different protocols tested the hypothesis that hind limb muscle tissue O(2) saturation (StO(2)), measured noninvasively with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), is as reliable as invasive systemic oxygenation indices to guide fluid resuscitation. METHODS In series 1, swine (n=30) were hemorrhaged, then received either no fluid, a fixed(More)
UNLABELLED Hextend (HEX) is a colloid solution that is FDA-approved for volume expansion during surgery. ATL-146e is a novel adenosine A2A receptor agonist that has anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and coronary vasodilator properties. Three series of experiments were designed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of HEX+/-ATL-146e for emergency(More)
BRAF is the most prevalent oncogene and an important therapeutic target in melanoma. In some cancers, BRAF is activated by rearrangements that fuse its kinase domain to 5' partner genes. We examined 848 comparative genomic hybridization profiles of melanocytic tumors and found copy number transitions within BRAF in 10 tumors, of which six could be further(More)
Oncogenic activation of BRAF fuels cancer growth by constitutively promoting RAS-independent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signalling. Accordingly, RAF inhibitors have brought substantially improved personalized treatment of metastatic melanoma. However, these targeted agents have also revealed an unexpected consequence: stimulated growth(More)
UNLABELLED Tyrosine kinase domain mutations are a common cause of acquired clinical resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) used to treat cancer, including the FLT3 inhibitor quizartinib. Mutation of kinase "gatekeeper" residues, which control access to an allosteric pocket adjacent to the ATP-binding site, has been frequently implicated in TKI(More)
Inflammation and cancer, two therapeutic areas historically addressed by separate drug discovery efforts, are now coupled in treatment approaches by a growing understanding of the dynamic molecular dialogues between immune and cancer cells. Agents that target specific compartments of the immune system, therefore, not only bring new disease modifying(More)
Tumor cells frequently metastasize to bone where they can generate cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) that can be difficult to fully control using available therapies. Here, we explored whether PLX3397, a high-affinity small molecular antagonist that binds to and inhibits phosphorylation of colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor, the tyrosine-protein kinase(More)
Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank the 2010 WESTCARB Annual Business Meeting workshop participants for their input. i United States Government Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes(More)
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