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OBJECTIVE ATP released from human erythrocytes in response to reduced oxygen tension (pO(2)) participates in the matching of oxygen (O(2)) supply with need in skeletal muscle by stimulating increases in blood flow to areas with increased O(2) demand. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that hyperinsulinemia inhibits ATP release from erythrocytes and(More)
Human erythrocytes, by virtue of their ability to release ATP in response to physiological stimuli, have been proposed to participate in the regulation of local blood flow. A signal transduction pathway that relates these stimuli to ATP release has been described and includes the heterotrimeric G protein G(i) and adenylyl cyclase (AC). In this cell, G(i)(More)
In non-erythroid cells, insulin stimulates a signal transduction pathway that results in the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and subsequent phosphorylation of phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3). Erythrocytes possess insulin receptors, PI3K and PDE3B. These cells release adenosine triphosphate (ATP) when exposed to reduced O(2) tension via a signaling(More)
Erythrocytes release ATP in response to exposure to the physiological stimulus of lowered oxygen (O(2)) tension as well as pharmacological activation of the prostacyclin receptor (IPR). ATP release in response to these stimuli requires activation of adenylyl cyclase, accumulation of cAMP, and activation of protein kinase A. The mechanism by which ATP, a(More)
In skeletal muscle, oxygen (O(2)) delivery to appropriately meet metabolic need requires mechanisms for detection of the magnitude of O(2) demand and the regulation of O(2) delivery. Erythrocytes, when exposed to a decrease in O(2) tension, release both O(2) and the vasodilator adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The aims of this study were to establish that(More)
This paper presents an image enhancement and analysis system (DARWIN) based on an inexpensive microcomputer and applies the system to two bone morphometry problems relevant to postmenopausal osteoporosis. Using ovariectomized and intact female Macaca fascicularis as a model, we examined the radiodensity of the sixth lumbar vertebra and the cross-section(More)
Erythrocytes, via release of ATP in areas of low oxygen (O(2)) tension, are components of a regulatory system for the distribution of perfusion in skeletal muscle ensuring optimal O(2) delivery to meet tissue needs. In type 2 diabetes (DM2), there are defects in O(2) supply to muscle as well as a failure of erythrocytes to release ATP. The goal of this(More)
Erythrocytes release both O(2) and a vasodilator, ATP, when exposed to reduced O(2) tension. We investigated the hypothesis that ATP release is impaired in erythrocytes of humans with type 2 diabetes (DM2) and that this defect compromises the ability of these cells to stimulate dilation of resistance vessels. We also determined whether a general(More)
In 1929, August Krogh identified the matching of oxygen (O(2)) supply with demand in skeletal muscle as a fundamental physiological process. In the intervening decades, much research has been focused on elucidating the mechanisms by which this important process occurs. For any control system to be effective, there must be a means by which the need is(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to establish that the prostacyclin (PGI(2)) receptor (IP receptor) is present on rabbit and human erythrocytes and that its activation stimulates cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release. METHODS The effect of incubation of erythrocytes with the active PGI(2) analogs,(More)