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Surface-contact-mediated signaling induced by the measles virus (MV) fusion and hemagglutinin glycoproteins is necessary and sufficient to induce T-cell unresponsiveness in vitro and in vivo. To define the intracellular pathways involved, we analyzed interleukin (IL)-2R signaling in primary human T cells and in Kit-225 cells. Unlike IL-2-dependent(More)
Pattern recognition via Toll-like receptors (TLR) by antigen-presenting cells is an important element of innate immunity. We report that wild-type measles virus but not vaccine strains activate cells via both human and murine TLR2, and this is a property of the hemagglutinin (H) protein. The ability to activate cells via TLR2 by wild-type MV H protein is(More)
Human volunteers receiving TGN1412, a humanized CD28-specific monoclonal antibody, experienced a life-threatening cytokine release syndrome during a recent trial. Preclinical tests using human PBMCs had failed to announce the rapid release of TNF, IFN-γ, and other toxic cytokines in response to this CD28 "superagonist" (CD28SA). CD28SA activate(More)
Immunosuppression is the major cause of infant death associated with acute measles. Hallmarks of this generalized modulation of immune functions include: (1) lymphopenia, (2) a prolonged cytokine imbalance consistent with suppression of cellular immunity to secondary infections and (3) silencing of peripheral blood lymphocytes that fail to expand in(More)
By a contact-dependent surface interaction, the measles virus (MV) glycoprotein complex induces a pronounced inhibition of T-cell proliferation. We now show that MV directly interacts with glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains on human primary T cells and alters recruitment and segregation of membrane proximal signaling components.(More)
As pattern recognition receptor on dendritic cells (DCs), DC-SIGN binds carbohydrate structures on its pathogen ligands and essentially determines host pathogen interactions because it both skews T cell responses and enhances pathogen uptake for cis infection and/or T cell trans-infection. How these processes are initiated at the plasma membrane level is(More)
Silencing of T cell activation and function is a highly efficient strategy of immunosuppression induced by pathogens. By promoting formation of membrane microdomains essential for clustering of receptors and signalling platforms in the plasma membrane, ceramides accumulating as a result of membrane sphingomyelin breakdown are not only essential for assembly(More)
CD3/CD28-induced activation of the PI3/Akt kinase pathway and proliferation is impaired in T cells after contact with the measles virus (MV) glycoprotein (gp) complex. We now show that this signal also impairs actin cytoskeletal remodeling in T cells, which loose their ability to adhere and to promote microvilli formation. MV exposure results in an almost(More)
Interaction with dendritic cells (DCs) is considered as central to immunosuppression induced by viruses, including measles virus (MV). Commonly, viral infection of DCs abrogates their ability to promote T cell expansion, yet underlying mechanisms at a cellular level are undefined. We found that MV-infected DCs only subtly differed from LPS-matured with(More)
Interference of measles virus (MV) with phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) activation in response to T cell receptor ligation was identified as important for the induction of T cell paralysis. We now show that MV exposure of unstimulated T cells induces expression of SIP110, an isoform of the lipid phosphatase SHIP145, which is translated from an(More)