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Exposure to metals may promote atherosclerosis. Blood cadmium and lead were associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary levels of cadmium, lead, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, and(More)
BACKGROUND Environmental exposure to arsenic has been linked to hypertension in persons living in arsenic-endemic areas. OBJECTIVE We summarized published epidemiologic studies concerning arsenic exposure and hypertension or blood pressure (BP) measurements to evaluate the potential relationship. DATA SOURCES AND EXTRACTION We searched PubMed, Embase,(More)
BACKGROUND Cadmium exposure has been associated with increased all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality. However, studies investigating this association have included participants with considerably higher levels of cadmium than those found in the general population. OBJECTIVE We aimed to evaluate the association of creatinine-corrected(More)
We evaluated the association between physical activity and changes in white matter lesions (WMLs) on MRI in a sample of 179 older adults comprising 59 incident cases of Alzheimer disease, 60 persons with mild cognitive impairment, and 60 persons who remained cognitively stable over a median 5-year follow-up. Physical activity was not significantly(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and all cause and cause specific mortality in a representative sample of the US general population. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III: 1988-94) with follow-up of mortality to 2006. PARTICIPANTS(More)
BACKGROUND Public health policies such as tobacco control, air pollution reduction, and hazardous waste remediation may have reduced cadmium exposure among U.S. adults. However, trends in urine cadmium, a marker of cumulative cadmium exposure, have not been evaluated. OBJECTIVES We estimated the trends in urine cadmium concentrations in U.S. adults using(More)
BACKGROUND Statin therapy significantly reduces cardiovascular events. Older patients, however, are less likely to be prescribed statins than younger patients due to concern over lack of indication, lower predictive value of cholesterol levels, and increased risk of adverse events. To determine the effect of statins on all-cause mortality and on major(More)
BACKGROUND Studies investigating the association of cadmium and sex steroid hormones in men have been inconsistent, but previous studies were relatively small. METHODS In a nationally representative sample of 1,262 men participating in the morning examination session of phase I (1998-1991) of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,(More)
OBJECTIVE This systematic review evaluates the evidence on the association between lead exposure and cardiovascular end points in human populations. METHODS We reviewed all observational studies from database searches and citations regarding lead and cardiovascular end points. RESULTS A positive association of lead exposure with blood pressure has been(More)