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Physical activity may help preserve cognitive function and decrease dementia risk, but epidemiologic findings are inconsistent. The authors conducted a prospective study to determine the association between physical activity and risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia. The US study population comprised 3,375 men and women aged 65 years(More)
BACKGROUND It has been suggested that mercury, a highly reactive heavy metal with no known physiologic activity, increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Because fish intake is a major source of exposure to mercury, the mercury content of fish may counteract the beneficial effects of its n-3 fatty acids. METHODS In a case-control study conducted in(More)
BACKGROUND Experimental models and observational studies suggest that vitamin E supplementation may prevent cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, several trials of high-dosage vitamin E supplementation showed non-statistically significant increases in total mortality. PURPOSE To perform a meta-analysis of the dose-response relationship between(More)
CONTEXT High chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water has been related to diabetes development, but the effect of exposure to low to moderate levels of inorganic arsenic on diabetes risk is unknown. In contrast, arsenobetaine, an organic arsenic compound derived from seafood intake, is considered nontoxic. OBJECTIVE To investigate the(More)
BACKGROUND Lead and cadmium exposure may promote atherosclerosis, although the cardiovascular effects of chronic low-dose exposure are largely unknown. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between blood levels of lead and cadmium and peripheral arterial disease. METHODS AND RESULTS We analyzed data from 2125 participants who(More)
BACKGROUND Environmental exposure to arsenic has been linked to hypertension in persons living in arsenic-endemic areas. OBJECTIVE We summarized published epidemiologic studies concerning arsenic exposure and hypertension or blood pressure (BP) measurements to evaluate the potential relationship. DATA SOURCES AND EXTRACTION We searched PubMed, Embase,(More)
Exposure to metals may promote atherosclerosis. Blood cadmium and lead were associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary levels of cadmium, lead, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, and(More)
UNLABELLED Ultrasonography is a widely accessible imaging technique for the detection of fatty liver, but the reported accuracy and reliability have been inconsistent across studies. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of ultrasonography for the detection of fatty liver. We used MEDLINE and(More)
Environmental cadmium and lead exposures are widespread, and both metals are nephrotoxic at high exposure levels. Few studies have evaluated the associations between low-level cadmium and clinical renal outcomes, particularly with respect to joint cadmium and lead exposure. The geometric mean levels of blood cadmium and lead were 0.41 microg/L (3.65 nmol/L)(More)
BACKGROUND Cadmium exposure has been associated with increased all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality. However, studies investigating this association have included participants with considerably higher levels of cadmium than those found in the general population. OBJECTIVE We aimed to evaluate the association of creatinine-corrected(More)