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The burst of laughter that is evoked by tickling is a primitive form of vocalization. It evolves during an early phase of postnatal life and appears to be independent of higher cortical circuits. Clinicopathological observations have led to suspicions that the hypothalamus is directly involved in the production of laughter. In this functional magnetic(More)
BACKGROUND Olfactory dysfunction is a frequent non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD) and is considered to be an early manifestation of the disease. OBJECTIVE To establish the cortical basis of olfactory function in patients with PD. METHOD Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate brain activity related to olfactory(More)
Olfactory dysfunction is a frequent nonmotor symptom in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and may be considered as an early clinical feature of the disease preceding motor symptoms by years. According to recent neuropathological staging concepts, impaired olfaction is assumed to indicate an early pathological process and might be associated with(More)
Olfactory disorders are common in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). In IPD patients with hyposmia olfactory event-related potentials (ERPs) are typically found to be delayed or absent. Altered ERPs in IPD patients may also be consistent with reduced neuronal activity in the medial temporal lobe following olfactory stimulation, as(More)
The insular cortex is fundamentally involved in the processing of interoceptive information. It has been postulated that the integrative monitoring of the bodily responses to environmental stimuli is crucial for the recognition and experience of emotions. Because emotional arousal is known to be closely coupled to functions of the anterior insula, we(More)
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