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BACKGROUND High extracellular glutamate concentrations have been identified as a likely trigger of epileptic seizures in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We investigated whether a deficiency in glutamine synthetase, a key enzyme in catabolism of extracellular glutamate in the brain, could explain the(More)
BK channels are voltage- and calcium-dependent potassium channels whose activation tends to reduce cellular excitability. In hippocampal pyramidal cells, BK channels repolarize somatic action potentials, and recent immunogold and electrophysiological analyses have revealed a presynaptic pool of BK channels that can regulate glutamate release. Agents that(More)
Neuronal calcium-activated potassium channels of the BK type are activated by membrane depolarization and intracellular Ca(2+) ions. It has been suggested that these channels may play a key neuroprotective role during and after brain ischemia, but this hypothesis has so far not been tested by selective BK-channel manipulations in vivo. To elucidate the in(More)
Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) have increased basal concentrations of extracellular glutamate in the epileptogenic versus the non-epileptogenic hippocampus. Such elevated glutamate levels have been proposed to underlie the initiation and maintenance of recurrent seizures, and a key question is what causes the elevation of glutamate in(More)
N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are essential mediators of synaptic plasticity under normal physiological conditions. During brain ischemia, these receptors are excessively activated due to glutamate overflow and mediate excitotoxic cell death. Although organotypical hippocampal slice cultures are widely used to study brain ischemia in vitro by(More)
The capacity for DNA repair is likely to be one of the factors that determine the vulnerability of neurons to ischemic stress and may influence the pathological outcome of stroke. In this report, initiation of base excision repair (BER) was assessed by analysis of enzyme activity and gene expression level of DNA glycosylases and AP-endonucleases in rat(More)
Cell death was assessed by quantitative analysis of propidium iodide uptake in rat hippocampal slice cultures transiently exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation, an in vitro model of brain ischemia. The hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3, and fascia dentata were analyzed at different stages from 0 to 48 h after the insult. Cell death appeared at 3 h and(More)
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