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Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site(More)
Broadband thermal and reflectance observations of the martian north polar region in late summer yield temperatures for the residual polar cap near 205 K with albedos near 43 percent. The residual cap and several outlying smaller deposits are water ice with included dirt; there is no evidence for any permanent carbon dioxide polar cap.
The Viking infrared thermal mapper measures the thermal emission of the martian surface and atmosphere and the total reflected sunlight. With the high resolution and dense coverage being achieved, planetwide thermal structure is apparent at large and small scales. The thermal behavior of the best-observed areas, the landing sites, cannot be explained by(More)
Selected observations made with the Viking infrared thermal mapper after the first landing are reported. Atmospheric temperatures measured at the latitude of the Viking 2 landing site (48 degrees N) over most of a martian day reveal a diurnal variation of at least 15 K, with peak temperatures occurring near 2.2 hours after noon, implying significant(More)
The infrared radiometer on Mariner 10 measured the thermal emission from the planet with a spatial resolution element as small as 40 kilometers in a broad wavelength band centered at 45 micrometers. The minimum brightness temperature (near local midnight) in these near-equatorial scans was 100 degrees K. Along the track observed, the temperature declined(More)
The intensity of emission at 45 micrometers, measured with high spatial resolution along a single crossing of the Venus disk, is presented. On the average, the observed darkening toward the limb varies nearly linearly with the cosine of the emission angle. The brightness temperature, extrapolated to normal emission, is 255 degrees K. The limb darkening(More)