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In addition to rods and cones, the human retina contains light-sensitive ganglion cells that express melanopsin, a photopigment with signal transduction mechanisms similar to that of invertebrate rhabdomeric photopigments (IRP). Like fly rhodopsins, melanopsin acts as a dual-state photosensitive flip-flop in which light drives both phototransduction(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus regulates daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. It is composed of a heterogeneous population of cells that together form the circuits underlying its master clock function. Numerous studies suggest the existence of two regions that have been termed core and shell. At a gross level, differences between(More)
The circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle through photic information conveyed from the retina. The vast majority of projections to the SCN arise from melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells that are intrinsically light sensitive and that receive inputs from both rods and cones. To(More)
Glaucoma is a widespread ocular disease and major cause of blindness characterized by progressive, irreversible damage of the optic nerve. Although the degenerative loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and visual deficits associated with glaucoma have been extensively studied, we hypothesize that glaucoma will also lead to alteration of the circadian timing(More)
Glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy leading to a degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. There is accumulating evidence that glaucomatous damage extends from retinal ganglion cells to vision centers in the brain. Degenerative changes are observed in magnocellular, parvocellular, and koniocellular pathways in the lateral geniculate nucleus, and these(More)
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