Elisabetta Volpe

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Interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing T helper 17 cells (T(H)-17 cells) have been described as a T helper cell subset distinct from T helper type 1 (T(H)1) and T(H)2 cells, with specific functions in antimicrobial defense and autoimmunity. The factors driving human T(H)-17 differentiation remain controversial. Using a systematic approach combining experimental(More)
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an epithelial cell-derived cytokine that strongly activates dendritic cells (DC) and can initiate allergic inflammation. The factors inducing the production of human TSLP are not known. In this study, we show that proinflammatory (TNF-alpha or IL-1alpha) and Th2 (IL-4 or IL-13) cytokines synergized to induce the(More)
T helper 17 (Th17) cells produce IL-17 but can also make tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-21, and IL-22. These cytokines collectively contribute to the functional outcome of the Th response. IL-22 plays a critical role in some Th17-associated diseases, such as psoriasis, but its relationship to IL-17 remains controversial. Here, we used(More)
Understanding how inflammation causes neuronal damage is of paramount importance in multiple sclerosis (MS) and in other neurodegenerative diseases. Here we addressed the role of the apoptotic cascade in the synaptic abnormalities and neuronal loss caused by the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in brain(More)
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a polar sphingolipid metabolite, is involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes, including Ca(++) mobilization, cell growth, differentiation, motility, and cytoskeleton organization. Here, we show a novel role of S1P in the induction of antimicrobial activity in human macrophages that leads to the intracellular killing(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most prolific pathogens worldwide, and its virulence resides in its capacity to survive in human macrophages. In the present study, we analyzed the gene expression profile of M. tuberculosis H37Rv in macrophages and synthetic medium at the whole genome level. Out of 3875 spots tested, 970 genes passed the statistical(More)
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipidic messenger known to exert several physiological functions within the cell. We tested here whether the stimulation of human monocytes with different doses of S1P might interfere with their differentiation into competent dendritic cells (DC). Monocytes cultured with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor,(More)
The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade is required for the induction of a T helper type 17 (Th17) -mediated autoimmune response, which underlies the development and progression of several autoimmune diseases, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the contribution of p38(More)
Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an adaptor protein that transduces intracellular signaling pathways evoked by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs). MyD88 is composed of an N-terminal death domain (DD) and a C-terminal Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain, separated by a short region. Upon ligand binding, TLR/IL-1Rs(More)