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BACKGROUND Copolymer 1 (Cop-1) is a random synthetic amino acid copolymer, effective in the treatment of the relapsing-remitting form of MS (RRMS). In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the mechanism of Cop-1 involves its binding to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules as an initial step. OBJECTIVE To assess a possible relationship(More)
We assessed whether transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a fibrogenic growth factor, may be involved in remodeling of asthma and chronic bronchitis; its expression was compared with that of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in bronchial mucosal biopsies from 13 normal subjects, 24 asthmatics,(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence that selenium levels are relatively low in Europe and may be falling. Low levels of selenium or low activity of some of the enzymes dependent on selenium have been associated with asthma. METHODS The GA(2)LEN network has organized a multicentre case-control study in Europe to assess the relation of plasma selenium to asthma.(More)
Apoptosis is an important mechanism allowing inflammation to be limited. Glucocorticoids are the most effective anti-inflammatory agents in asthma therapy and induce cell apoptosis. Since T-lymphocytes are critically involved in airway inflammation in asthma, the effects of fluticasone propionate (FP) on apoptosis in unstimulated and in interleukin (IL)-2(More)
Airway epithelium is emerging as a regulator of innate immune responses to a variety of insults including cigarette smoke. The main goal of this study was to explore the effects of cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) on Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and activation in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16-HBE). The CSE increased the expression of TLR4(More)
BACKGROUND The adipokine leptin is a potential new mediator for bronchial epithelial homeostasis. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway remodeling that might affect disease chronicity and severity. TGF-beta is a tissue growth factor the dysregulation of which is associated with airway remodeling. OBJECTIVE We sought to determine(More)
BACKGROUND Chromatin modification may play a role in inflammatory gene regulation in asthma. Cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate response element-binding protein (CREB), with the specific co-activator, the CREB-binding protein (CBP), contributes to the acetylation of chromatin and to the transcription of pro-inflammatory genes. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the(More)
BACKGROUND Apigenin, a common edible plant flavonoid, is a well characterised antioxidant. The adipokine leptin exerts proliferative and anti-apoptotic activities in a variety of cell types. In cancer cells, apigenin may induce a pro-apoptotic pathway whereas leptin has an anti-apoptotic role. The purpose of the study is to investigate the role of apigenin(More)
The pleural space is a potential compartment between the lung and chest wall that becomes filled with fluid and inflammatory cells in a number of respiratory diseases. In an attempt to understand one aspect of the inflammatory process in the pleural space, we compared the responses in three different diseases (congestive heart failure [CHF], tuberculosis(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by chronic inflammation in airways and lung parenchyma. CD8+ T-lymphocytes, crucial effector and regulatory cells in inflammation, are increased in the central and peripheral airways in COPD. The aim of this study was to assess the role of apoptosis in the accumulation of CD8+ T-lymphocytes(More)