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Various therapeutic interventions after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) have been shown to reduce brain injury in the short-term perspective, but it remains uncertain whether such findings are accompanied by long-term functional and structural improvements. HI was induced in 7-d-old rats as follows. The left carotid artery was ligated, and the rat was exposed to 100(More)
The effect of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) on IL-1, and IL-6 bioactivity in relation to expression of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 mRNA was studied, and the neuroprotective efficacy of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) was evaluated in neonatal rats. HI was induced in 7-d-old rats by unilateral carotid artery ligation and hypoxia for 70-100 min. Animals were(More)
The inflammatory response following hypoxic-ischemia (HI) in the neonate is largely unknown. Presently, the expression of microglial antigens and the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) were studied in relation to a dendrosomatic marker of neuronal injury (microtubule associated protein II; MAP II). HI was induced in 7-day-old rats by the combined(More)
Neonatal rats were subjected to transient cerebral hypoxic-ischemia (unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery + 7.70% O2 for 100 min) and allowed to recover for 3 h, 24 h, 2 days or 14 days. Consecutive tissue sections were stained with antibodies against alpha-fodrin, the 150 kDa breakdown product of alpha-fodrin (FBDP, marker of calpain(More)
There is considerable concern over the widespread use of caffeine during and after pregnancy. We have therefore examined the effect of perinatal caffeine use on the vulnerability of the immature brain to hypoxic ischemia (HI). Rat pups were exposed to caffeine during the first 7 d after birth by addition of a low or a high dose (0.3 or 0.8 g/L) of caffeine(More)
Hypoxia-ischemia induces an inflammatory response in the immature central nervous system that may be important for development of brain injury. Recent data implicate that chemoattractant cytokines, chemokines, are involved in the recruitment of immune cells. The aim was to study alpha- and beta-chemokines in relation to the temporal activation of(More)
Neonatal rats were subjected to transient cerebral hypoxic-ischemia (HI, unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery +7.70% O2 for 100 min) and allowed to recover for up to 14 days. Calpain caseinolytic activity was found to increase in both hemispheres for at least 20 hr. Hypoxic exposure per se increased the activity of calpains, more pronounced in(More)
In a situation with normal CBF and without increased energy utilization, increased glucose utilization (CMRglc) can be a sign of impaired mitochondrial metabolism, which may be an early step in the injury cascade during reperfusion after hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Seven-day-old rats underwent unilateral carotid artery ligation and 70 minutes of HI. At 3, 6, 12,(More)
The Levene model in 7-day-old rats is the most often used model of hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) in immature animals. The rat central nervous system is immature at birth and corresponds neurodevelopmentally to the term human infant during the second postnatal week. The Levene model of HI differs from clinical asphyxia with respect to the unilateral distribution of(More)
The effects of nonselective (theophylline), A1-(DPCPX) or A2A-selective (SCH 58261) adenosine receptor antagonists administered before or after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) were studied on the extent of brain injury in 7-day-old rats evaluated after 14 days. A possible effect of theophylline (20 mg/kg) on expression of immediate early genes was studied(More)