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Numerous evidence has demonstrated the involvement in growth control of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), which shows tumor suppressor activity. IRF-1 is a well-studied member of the IRF transcription factors that reveals functional diversity in the regulation of cellular response by activating expression of a diverse set of target genes,(More)
UNLABELLED Resting CD4+ T lymphocytes resist human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Here, we provide evidence that exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells render resting human primary CD4+ T lymphocytes permissive to HIV-1 replication. These results were obtained with transwell cocultures of HIV-1-infected cells with quiescent CD4+ T lymphocytes in the(More)
Treatment of cells with interferons (IFNs) induces resistance to virus infection. The 2'-5'oligo A (2-5A) synthetase/RNase L is one of the pathways leading to translation inhibition induced by IFN treatment. A murine cDNA encoding the 43-kDa 2-5A synthetase was cloned and sequenced. NIH-3T3 cell clones transfected with this cDNA expressed the enzymatic(More)
Increasing evidence indicates that the expression of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) Nef protein significantly influences the activation state of the host cell. Here we report that Nef specifically activates STAT3 in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). This was demonstrated by both single-cycle infection experiments driven by(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (typically 22 nucleotides) non-coding, endogenous, single-stranded RNAs. MiRNA genes are evolutionarily conserved and are located within the introns or exons of protein-coding genes, as well as in intergenic areas. Before the discovery of miRNAs, it had been known that a large part of the genome is not translated into proteins.(More)
The viral protein Nef is a virulence factor that plays multiple roles during the early and late phases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. Nef regulates the cell surface expression of critical proteins (including down-regulation of CD4 and major histocompatibility complex class I), T-cell receptor signaling, and apoptosis, inducing(More)
Monocytes/macrophages play a predominant role in the immunologic network by secreting and reacting to a wide range of soluble factors. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to deep immunologic dysfunctions, also as a consequence of alterations in the pattern of cytokine release. Recent studies on in vivo models demonstrated that the expression(More)
It has been recently reported that the endogenous expression of HIV-1 Nef in human monocyte/macrophages induces the release of chemokines and other as yet unidentified soluble factors leading to multiple effects of pathogenic significance, such as the recruitment and activation of quiescent lymphocytes. However, the description of underlying molecular(More)
Tumor microenvironment can differ considerably in various types of tumors in terms of cellular and cytokine networks and molecular drivers. The well known link between inflammation and cancer has recently found a number of genetic and molecular confirmations. In this respect, numerous reports have revealed that infection and chronic inflammation can(More)