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Peroxisome proliferators such as clofibric acid, nafenopin, and WY-14,643 have been shown to activate PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), a member of the steroid nuclear receptor superfamily. We have cloned the cDNA from the rat that is homologous to that from the mouse [Issemann, I. & Green, S. (1990) Nature (London) 347, 645-650], which(More)
Four cDNA clones, pDR-alpha-1, pDR-alpha-2, pDR-alpha-3 and pDR-alpha-4, corresponding to the alpha chain of HLA-DR antigens, have been sequenced. Restriction maps and sequences suggest that all clones are identical apart from a single-base substitution present in pDR-alpha-1. Amino acid sequence data, together with the nucleotide sequence data, allowed the(More)
The rat peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) was expressed in insect cells and was shown to bind to a cognate PPAR response element (PPRE) from the acyl-CoA oxidase gene. Upon purification, PPAR was no longer able to bind DNA, although binding could be restored by addition of insect cell extracts. We investigated whether the retinoid X receptor(More)
The genes of the polymorphic HLA-DR molecules are located within the human major histocompatibility complex. We have studied the HLA-DR genes of an HLA homozygous individual typed to be DR4, Dw4, and DRw53. Fourteen cosmid and phage clones from genomic libraries were isolated and grouped into three clusters comprising a total of 165 kilobases. These(More)
Six bronchodilating beta-adrenoceptor agonists, clinically documented with respect to the duration of action after inhalation, were included in this study in vitro on the guinea-pig trachea. Relaxation of carbachol contracted trachea strip preparations and inhibition of contraction of a vagus nerve-tracheal tube preparation were measured. The relaxing(More)
Forskolin, a potent activator of adenylate cyclase, and isoprenaline, an unselective beta-adrenoceptor agonist, were studied in vitro on tissues from guinea-pig with respect to relaxation of the carbachol-contracted trachea, increase in the force of contraction of the papillary muscle and depression of subtetanic contractions of the soleus muscle, three(More)
Using a novel combination of analytical chemical and molecular biological techniques, lipophilic components of human plasma separated according to their physico-chemical properties were screened for their ability to activate the rat peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (rPPAR). Activation of an rPPAR/glucocorticoid receptor chimera stably expressed in(More)
The DP region of the human major histocompatibility complex contains two alpha genes and two beta genes. The DP alpha 1 and beta 1 genes encode the expressed DP histocompatibility antigen molecule, while the DP alpha 2 and beta 2 genes are inactive in the haplotypes examined. Here we present the sequence of the two DP beta genes and of the expressed DP(More)
The effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on the contractile response to vagus nerve stimulation at different frequencies was studied in an isolated tracheal tube preparation from guinea pig. NPY had no effect on basal smooth muscle tension or on the contractile effect of carbachol, but inhibited vagally induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner(More)
The human major histocompatibility complex, HLA, is a highly polymorphic gene region which includes the DRA and DRB genes. The number of DRB genes differs between haplotypes. The DR4 haplotype seems to be one of the most complex with five DRB loci, DRB1, DRB4, DRB7, DRB8, and DRB9, in addition to the single DRA locus. We determined the nucleotide sequences(More)