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Learning causes a change in how information is processed by neuronal circuits. Whereas synaptic plasticity, an important cellular mechanism, has been studied in great detail, we know much less about how learning is implemented at the level of neuronal circuits and, in particular, how interactions between distinct types of neurons within local networks(More)
Dendrites of pyramidal neurons from embryonic rat hippocampus are investigated in culture using a voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye. The electrical response to somatic stimulation is observed as a time-resolved map with a resolution of 0.9 microm at a time constant of 0.4 ms without signal averaging. The data are interpreted in terms of a tapering cable(More)
Neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the superior olivary complex (SOC) and convey GABAergic inhibition to the contralateral DNLL and the inferior colliculi. Unlike the fast glycinergic inhibition in the SOC, this GABAergic inhibition outlasts auditory stimulation by tens of(More)
Nicotinic receptors have been found to play a role in modulating pain transmission in the CNS. Activation of cholinergic pathways by nicotine and nicotinic agonists has been shown to elicit antinociceptive effects in a variety of species and pain tests. The involvement of alpha(7) nicotinic receptors in nicotinic analgesia was assessed after spinal (i.t.)(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent factor-analytic studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder identified consistent symptom dimensions. This study was designed in order to observe which obsessive compulsive symptom dimensions could be changed by adding two individual sessions of motivational interviewing and thought mapping of cognitive-behavioral group therapy using a(More)
INTRODUCTION The objective of the present study was to analyse secular trends in antibiotic consumption and resistance data from a network of 53 intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS The study involved prospective unit and laboratory-based surveillance in 53 German ICUs from 2001 through 2008. Data were calculated on the basis of proportions of(More)
BACKGROUND Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by repeated and persistent attempts to control thoughts and actions with rituals. These rituals are used in order to prevent feared or personally distressing outcomes. Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) has been reported to be effective for treating OCD patients. However, about one-third(More)
In the auditory system, large somatic synapses convey strong excitation that supports temporally precise information transfer. The information transfer of such synapses has predominantly been investigated in the endbulbs of Held in the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus and the calyx of Held in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body. These large synapses(More)
The epidemiology of MRSA pneumonia varies across countries. One of the most import risk factors for the development of nosocomial MRSA pneumonia is mechanical ventilation. Methicillin resistance in S. aureus ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) ranged between 37 % in German, 54 % in the US American and 78 % in Asian and Latin American ICUs. In 2009, the(More)
Neuroligin 2 (Nlgn2) is a synaptic adhesion protein that plays a central role in the maturation and function of inhibitory synapses. Nlgn2 mutations have been associated with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, and in mice, deletion of Nlgn2 results in a pronounced anxiety phenotype. To date, however, the molecular and cellular mechanisms linking(More)