Elisabeth L. George

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OBJECTIVE Assessment of the effectiveness compared with alternative treatment(s) plays an important role in many jurisdictions in determining the reimbursement status of pharmaceuticals. This type of assessment is often referred to as a relative effectiveness assessment (REA) and is carried out by many jurisdictions. Increased sharing of information across(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the impact of two levels of intervention on communication frequency, quality, success, and ease between nurses and intubated intensive care unit (ICU) patients. DESIGN Quasi-experimental, 3-phase sequential cohort study: (1) usual care, (2) basic communication skills training (BCST) for nurses, (3) additional training in augmentative and(More)
Adverse drug events are common in the intensive care unit setting. Despite the existence of many long-standing safety principles (such as the "five rights") and new mechanisms to promote medication safety, there is still a gap between practice and the goal of patient safety. This is the result of the many human and system factors that impact care delivery.(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to identify the possible barriers and critical success factors for the implementation of European collaboration in the field of relative effectiveness assessment (REA) of drugs. METHODS Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with representatives from eight European health technology assessment (HTA)(More)
BACKGROUND The inability to speak during critical illness is a source of distress for patients, yet nurse-patient communication in the intensive care unit has not been systematically studied or measured. OBJECTIVES To describe communication interactions, methods, and assistive techniques between nurses and nonspeaking critically ill patients in the(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the selection and use of health-related utility values for economic models included in National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Technology Appraisals. METHOD A cross-sectional review of reports of economic models submitted to the Technology Appraisals program was undertaken to review the health-related utility data(More)
Intensive care unit (ICU) nurses occupy an essential role in facilitating patient communication and preventing the detrimental effects experienced by critically ill patients who are unable to speak, yet most are not equipped with the tools or training to enable communication most effectively with patients who are unable to speak. The goal of the Study of(More)
Primary hepatocytes cultured as monolayers or as spheroids were studied to compare the effects of four different culture media (Williams' E, Chee's, Sigma Hepatocyte, and HepatoZYME medium). Rat hepatocytes were cultured as conventional monolayers for 3 d or as spheroids for 2 wk. For spheroid formation a method was employed that combined the use of a(More)