Learn More
The proboscis extension reflex (PER) is widely used in a classical conditioning (Pavlovian) context to evaluate learning and memory of a variety of insect species. The literature is particularly prodigious for honeybees (Apis mellifera) with more than a thousand publications. Imagination appears to be the only limit to the types of challenges to which(More)
In addition to human error and variation in laboratory conditions, there are numerous factors that can complicate comparisons among studies. Furthermore, differences in how experimental methods are executed can make it difficult to distinguish between effects of focal versus extraneous variables. Insect neural function is commonly evaluated using Pavlovian(More)
Predator avoidance is an important component of predator-prey relationships and can affect prey availability for foraging animals. Each summer, the burrow-dwelling amphipod Corophium volutator is heavily preyed upon by Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) on mudflats in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada. We conducted three complementary studies to(More)
  • 1