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BACKGROUND The variation of venom composition with geography is an important aspect of intraspecific variability in the Vipera genus, although causes of this variability remain unclear. The diversity of snake venom is important both for our understanding of venomous snake evolution and for the preparation of relevant antivenoms to treat envenomations. A(More)
Lyme borreliosis is the most important vector-borne disease caused by spirochetes within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi sl) complex. There is strong evidence that different species of this group of genetically diverse spirochetes are involved in distinct clinical manifestations of the disease. In order to differentiate species within(More)
Wild birds are important hosts for vector-borne pathogens, especially those borne by ticks. However, few studies have been conducted on the role of different bird species within a community as hosts of vector-borne pathogens. This study addressed individual and species factors that could explain the burden of Ixodes ricinus on forest birds during the(More)
We conducted a prospective study to estimate the Lyme borreliosis incidence in two rural French departments, Meuse and Puy-de-Dôme. Concurrently, we investigated the prevalence of ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The incidence of Lyme borreliosis decreased from 156 to 109/100,000 inhabitants in Meuse(More)
Due to the high Lyme borreliosis incidence in Alsace, in northeastern France, we investigated in 2003-2004 three cantons in this region in order to determine the density of Ixodes ricinus ticks infected by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasmataceae. The peak density of nymphs infected by B. burgdorferi sensu lato at Munster and Guebwiller, where(More)
The variation of the composition in species of host communities can modify the risk of disease transmission. In particular, the introduction of a new host species can increase health threats by adding a new reservoir and/or by amplifying the circulation of either exotic or native pathogens. Lyme borreliosis is a multi-host vector-borne disease caused by(More)
An epidemiological and biological survey of scorpion envenomation was conducted in Algeria. Analysis of 182 medical files showed that 70% of the patients were stung by Androctonus australis. Most accidents occurred during the morning (40%) or the evening (30%). Two-thirds of the patients reached a hospital 1 hour after being stung. Their clinical symptoms(More)
Despite the importance of population structure for the epidemiology of pathogenic bacteria, the spatial and ecological heterogeneity of these populations is often poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of the Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaete Borrelia garinii in its marine cycle involving colonial seabirds(More)
BACKGROUND Leptospirosis has long been a major public health concern in the southwestern Indian Ocean. However, in Madagascar, only a few, old studies have provided indirect serological evidence of the disease in humans or animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We conducted a large animal study focusing on small-mammal populations. Five field trapping(More)
UNLABELLED In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of Lyme borreliosis. Their salivary glands play a critical role in the biological success of ticks. To better understand the cross-talk between Borrelia burgdorferi and tick salivary glands, we analyzed protein expression in the salivary glands of I. ricinus adult ticks that were infected by various(More)