Many chronic diseases have a natural interpretation in terms of staged progression. Multistate models based on Markov processes are a well-established method of estimating rates of transition between stages of disease. However, diagnoses of disease stages are sometimes subject to error. The paper presents a general hidden Markov model for simultaneously… (More)
BACKGROUND Although several studies have investigated the association of the Mediterranean diet with overall mortality or risk of specific cancers, data on overall cancer risk are sparse. METHODS We examined the association between adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and overall cancer risk using data from the European Prospective Investigation… (More)
BACKGROUND A Mediterranean diet has a recognized beneficial effect on health and longevity, with a protective influence on several cancers. However, its association with breast cancer risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVE We aimed to investigate whether adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern influences breast cancer risk. DESIGN The Swedish Women's… (More)
Using the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, the increased risk of breast cancer in women with relatives with the disease did not vary with paternal/maternal lineage. Familial breast cancer heritable component was 73% and the environmental proportion 27%. Familial aggregation of breast cancer in women below age 51 years is mainly due to heritable causes.
Mammographic density (MD) is one of the strongest known breast cancer risk factors. Estrogen and progestin therapy (EPT) has been associated with increases in MD. Dense breast tissue is characterized by increased stromal tissue and (to a lesser degree) increased numbers of breast epithelial cells. It is possible that genetic factors modify the association… (More)
BACKGROUND While prophylactic human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination is considered effective in young girls, it is unclear whether a catch-up vaccination of older girls would be beneficial. We, therefore, aimed to examine the potential health impact of a HPV catch-up vaccination of girls who were too old at the time of vaccine introduction, hence aged 16… (More)
We aimed to estimate the effect of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk and to test whether overweight and obesity modifies this association. We included in the analysis 45,233 women enrolled in the Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health study between 1991 and 1992. Participants were followed for occurrence of breast cancer and death until December 2009.… (More)
Children whose twins have had leukaemia have a higher risk of contracting acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), confirming a prenatal origin of the disease. This association was not true when considering other types of affected first-degree relatives. Children whose fathers were diagnosed with testicular cancer have a higher risk of ALL.
BACKGROUND The role of vitamin D in breast cancer etiology is unclear. There is some, but inconsistent, evidence that vitamin D is associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density (MD). We evaluated the associations of MD with month the mammogram was taken, and with vitamin D intake, in a population of women from Norway--a country with… (More)
During the last two decades the Portuguese public administration was greatly modernized, using IT to increase some processes efficiency and scalability. This popularization of IT sparked multiple ad hoc technological projects inside ministries, which led to the creation of small and scattered IT departments. The Portuguese government, due to the current… (More)