Elisabeth Carniel

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Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is a highly uniform clone that diverged recently from the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Despite their close genetic relationship, they differ radically in their pathogenicity and transmission. Here, we report the complete genomic sequence of Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 and its use for(More)
Plague, one of the most devastating diseases of human history, is caused by Yersinia pestis. In this study, we analyzed the population genetic structure of Y. pestis and the two other pathogenic Yersinia species, Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica. Fragments of five housekeeping genes and a gene involved in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharide were(More)
Plague is a pandemic human invasive disease caused by the bacterial agent Yersinia pestis. We here report a comparison of 17 whole genomes of Y. pestis isolates from global sources. We also screened a global collection of 286 Y. pestis isolates for 933 SNPs using Sequenom MassArray SNP typing. We conducted phylogenetic analyses on this sequence variation(More)
The association of historical plague pandemics with Yersinia pestis remains controversial, partly because the evolutionary history of this largely monomorphic bacterium was unknown. The microevolution of Y. pestis was therefore investigated by three different multilocus molecular methods, targeting genomewide synonymous SNPs, variation in number of tandem(More)
Antimicrobial resistance in Yersinia pestis is rare, yet constitutes a significant international public health and biodefense threat. In 1995, the first multidrug resistant (MDR) isolate of Y. pestis (strain IP275) was identified, and was shown to contain a self-transmissible plasmid (pIP1202) that conferred resistance to many of the antimicrobials(More)
The compositions of bacterial genomes can be changed rapidly and dramatically through a variety of processes including horizontal gene transfer. This form of change is key to bacterial evolution, as it leads to 'evolution in quantum leaps'. Horizontal gene transfer entails the incorporation of genetic elements transferred from another organism-perhaps in an(More)
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based procedure without any cloning step was developed for a rapid mutagenesis/deletion of chromosomal target genes in Yersinia. For this purpose, a PCR fragment carrying an antibiotic resistance gene flanked by regions homologous to the target locus is electroporated into a recipient strain expressing the highly proficient(More)
From AD 1347 to AD 1353, the Black Death killed tens of millions of people in Europe, leaving misery and devastation in its wake, with successive epidemics ravaging the continent until the 18(th) century. The etiology of this disease has remained highly controversial, ranging from claims based on genetics and the historical descriptions of symptoms that it(More)
The genome of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolate 536 contains five well-characterized pathogenicity islands (PAIs) encoding key virulence factors of this strain. Except PAI IV(536), the four other PAIs of strain 536 are flanked by direct repeats (DRs), carry intact integrase genes and are able to excise site-specifically from the chromosome. Genome(More)
A pathogenicity island present only in highly pathogenic strains of Yersinia (Y. enterocolitica 1B, Y. pseudotuberculosis I and Y. pestis) has been identified on the chromosome of Yersinia spp. and has been designated High-Pathogenicity Island (HPI). The Yersinia HPI carries a cluster of genes involved in the biosynthesis, transport and regulation of the(More)