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Spinosad † (Dow Agrosciences) is a neurotoxic insecticide produced by fermentation of an actinomycete. Spinosad is classified as an environmentally and toxicologically reduced risk material and has been embraced by IPM practitioners as a biorational pesticide. We examined the available information on the impact of spinosad on natural enemies and classified(More)
Spinosyn-based products, mostly spinosad, have been widely recommended by extension specialists and agribusiness companies; consequently, they have been used to control various pests in many different cropping systems. Following the worldwide adoption of spinosad-based products for integrated and organic farming, an increasing number of ecotoxicological(More)
Susceptibility of the lepidopteran parasitoid Hyposoter didymator (Thunberg) to seven modern insecticides, azadirachtin, diflubenzuron, halofenozide, methoxyfenozide, pyriproxyfen, tebufenozide, and spinosad, was tested in the laboratory. Pupae were exposed to different doses of each compound by direct topical application. At the field recommended doses,(More)
Effects on adult longevity, fecundity and fertility, as well as long-term effects on progeny were determined through oral exposure of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) adults to azadirachtin and methoxyfenozide. Both compounds reduced adult longevity by 2.3 d at the higher concentrations tested, but no significant differences were(More)
To further develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies against crop pests, it is important to evaluate the effects of insecticides on biological control agents. Therefore, we tested the toxicity and sublethal effects (fecundity and fertility) of flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin on the natural(More)
BACKGROUND The moulting accelerating compounds (MACs) or ecdysteroid agonists represent a selective group of insecticides acting upon binding to the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) and leading to lethal premature moulting in larval stages and aborted reproduction in adults. Psyttalia concolor Szèpl. is a useful parasitic wasp attacking important tephritid pests(More)
Susceptibility to methoxyfenozide of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae was determined through exposure of neonate and fourth instars to dipped and sprayed pepper, Capsicum annum L., leaves. Methoxyfenozide and spinosad were tested against adults of this noctuid by oral, residual, and topical application. In larvae, we(More)
A commercial formulation of azadirachtin (Align) was tested on Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) adults to determine its effects on reproduction. Three methods of exposure were carried out in the laboratory (residual, direct contact and ingestion) with concentrations close to the maximum field recommended concentration in Spain (48 mg(More)
Methoxyfenozide (RH-2485) was found to be 7.5-fold less toxic in terms of LD50 values against last-instar larvae of a greenhouse-selected strain of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) that was collected in July 2001 in an experimental greenhouse for resistance at Murcia in southern Spain, in comparison with a laboratory susceptible strain. To date,(More)
Topical treatment of the predatory lacewing adults, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) before and after the onset of oviposition with diflubenzuron (DFB) at doses based on the maximum field recommended concentration resulted in a total inhibition of egg hatch due to death of the embryo. In contrast, pyriproxyfen (PYR) and tebufenozide(More)