Elisa Schmidt

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BACKGROUND There is uncertainty whether environmental levels of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) adversely affect mental and motor development in early childhood. We aimed to establish whether such an effect is of only prenatal or additional postnatal origin, and if a favourable home environment can counteract this effect. METHODS Between 1993(More)
Neurobehavioral effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at environmental levels of exposure have been reported in cross-sectional and prospective studies in infants and children. However, observations differ for effect spectrum, persistence and effective matrix (cord plasma, maternal plasma or milk). In order to improve risk assessment by clarifying(More)
In a retrospective study, 34 early treated, normally intelligent adolescents with phenylketonuria (PKU) and their parents were tested with several psychometric personality inventories and self-developed questionaires concerning their psychosocial situation and their disease-and diet-specific knowledge. Results show that the patients are characterized by(More)
In a multicentric and interdisciplinary approach the German Collaborative Study of Children Treated for Phenylketonuria (PKU) investigates prospectively the effects of early started strict dietary treatment on the growth and development of 140 patients. The present paper focuses on longitudinal intelligence data from 4, 5 and 9 years of age of 89 patients(More)
Psychosocial aspects in phenylketonuric (PKU) patients are reported. In two separate studies patients with PKU differing in age (children versus adolescents), were assessed. The main message of the first prospective study on 58 10-year-old patients is that normally intelligent PKU patients who were treated early and strictly did not show a higher risk for(More)
Cognitive development of early treated PKU children (132) was investigated by intelligence tests, tests for visual perception, motor and language development. Deviations from test norms occurred at 5 years of age concerning performance IQ, mathematical thinking, and visual perception. With the exception of mathematical thinking, “normal” results were(More)
The effect of different diets on the percentage content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP; metabolites of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids) in plasma lipids was studied in 29 premature infants on days 4 and 21 of life. Eleven infants were fed human milk which supplies LCP (1.7% of the fatty acids), 10 a commercially available milk formula(More)
The effects of short-term and long-term phenylalanine (Phe) levels on sustained attention have been investigated in phenylketonuria (PKU) patients. Two studies, one cross-sectional with 103 patients aged 8.5–9.0 years, the other with 15 adult patients following an interventional design with experimentally manipulated concurrent Phe levels are reported. The(More)
A series of information processing tasks was administered to 22 PKU children aged 8.5 years who had been under dietary treatment since birth as well as to 20 controls of the same age. This contribution presents the results of two tasks from this series: a continuous performance task and a calculation task. The continuous performance task revealed a(More)
In 20 patients with PAH deficiency, in vivo RA was determined by an intravenous deuterated Phe load. Sixteen patients had RAs of less than 0.4% of normal, 3a clearly detectable activity between 0.8 and 1.4% of normal. Long-term Phe tolerance as measured by the distribution of plasma Phe levels in categories (0–3.9, 4.0–9.9, 10–15.9 and over 16 mg/dl) was(More)