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Somatostatin (SRIF) exerts a modulatory function on neuronal transmission in the CNS. It has been proposed that a reduction of calcium currents is the major determinant of the inhibitory activity of this peptide on synaptic transmission. Because the neurotoxicity induced by activation of the NMDA subtype of glutamate receptor is mediated through excessive(More)
To investigate the role of IL-6 in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) its effect on amyloid precursor protein (APP) mRNA expression was evaluated. The levels of APP mRNA were determined by Northern blot analysis in primary cultured rat cortical neurons and glial cells exposed to IL-6 (50-200 ng/ml). The cytokine increased neuronal APP mRNA(More)
Cell viability and gene expression were studied in primary astroglial cells cultured in a nominally calcium-free medium. Ca2+ deprivation reduced progressively the astrocytes' viability, starting from 12 h; the restoration of a normal Ca2+ concentration (1.8 mM) in the medium after 12-h deprivation reversed the degenerative effect within 24 h. Biochemical(More)
The effect of a peptide homologous to the biologically active fragment of beta amyloid 25-35 (beta 25-35) was studied on interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) secretion induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in primary rat astrocytes and microglia. Twenty-four hour exposure to LPS (50 ng/ml) induced IL-6 and TNF-alpha both in astrocytes(More)
Prion-related encephalopathies are characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal prion protein isoform (PrPSc) associated with neuronal degeneration and astrogliosis. The synthetic peptide homologous to PrP fragment 106-126 (PrP 106-126) induced in vitro neuronal apoptosis and glial proliferation. We used Northern blot analysis and the RNA polymerase(More)
The aim of this work was to investigate whether free radical reactions play a role in beta-amyloid neurotoxicity. Rat cortical neurons were exposed acutely (24 h) or chronically (3, 7 days) to beta-amyloid biologically active fragment beta 25-35 (50 microM). In these conditions, where only the longest exposure induced neuronal death, superoxide dismutase(More)
Crinoid echinoderms can completely and rapidly regenerate arms lost following self-induced or traumatic amputation. Arm regeneration in these animals therefore provides a valuable experimental model for studying all aspects of regenerative processes, particularly with respect to the nervous system and its specific contribution to regenerative phenomena.(More)
The Aristotle's lantern, or masticatory apparatus, of regular sea-urchins is a complex musculo-skeletal system which is thought to have contributed significantly to the evolutionary success of these animals. This paper gives an account of the antomical relationships and functional morphology of both skeletal and soft tissue components in the lantern and(More)
Heme oxygenase (HO), which catalyzes the degradation of heme, has two isozymes (HO-1 and HO-2). In brain the noninducible HO-2 isoform is predominant, whereas the inducible HO-1 is a marker of oxidative stress. Because brain oxidative stress might be present in prion-related encephalopathies (PREs), as in other neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated(More)