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Seasonal plasticity of structure and function is a fundamental feature of nervous systems in a wide variety of animals that occupy seasonal environments. Excellent examples of seasonal brain changes are found in the avian song control system, which has become a leading model of morphological and functional plasticity in the adult CNS. The volumes of entire(More)
The song control nuclei of songbirds undergo pronounced seasonal changes in size and neuronal attributes. The mechanisms by which seasonal changes in environmental variables such as photoperiod mediate seasonal changes in these brain regions are not known. Manipulations of photoperiod and/or testosterone in captive songbirds induce seasonal changes in the(More)
Seasonal changes in the neural attributes of brain nuclei that control song in songbirds are among the most pronounced examples of naturally occurring plasticity in the adult brain of any vertebrate. The behavioral correlates of this seasonal neural plasticity have not been well characterized, particularly in songbird species that lack adult song learning.(More)
In adult songbirds, seasonal changes in photoperiod and circulating testosterone (T) stimulate structural changes within the neural song control circuitry. The mechanisms that control this natural plasticity are poorly understood. To determine how quickly and in what sequence the song nuclei respond to changing daylength and circulating T, we captured 18(More)
In seasonally breeding songbirds, song behavior and neural morphology change seasonally. Song control nuclei are larger during the breeding season, as determined by multiple cytological labels. Seasonal changes in song nuclei are regulated by testosterone (T), and several song nuclei contain intracellular androgen receptors (AR). Changes in AR levels may(More)
BACKGROUND Songbirds hold great promise for biomedical, environmental and evolutionary research. A complete draft sequence of the zebra finch genome is imminent, yet a need remains for application of genomic resources within a research community traditionally focused on ethology and neurobiological methods. In response, we developed a core set of genomic(More)
In males of several songbird species, the morphology of forebrain nuclei that control song changes seasonally. The only seasonally breeding songbird in which seasonal changes in the structure of song control nuclei have been reported not to occur is the nonmigratory Nuttall's subspecies of white-crowned sparrow. In the present study, we manipulated(More)
There is pronounced seasonal plasticity in the morphology of the neural circuits that regulate song behavior in adult songbirds, primarily in response to changes in plasma testosterone (T) levels. Most song nuclei have androgen receptors. Afferent input from the telencephalic nucleus HVc (also known as the "high vocal center") is necessary for seasonal(More)
Bird song is controlled by a discrete network of brain nuclei. The size of several song control nuclei changes seasonally in many seasonally breeding songbird species. Reports of seasonal changes in the size of song nuclei have relied primarily on Nissl stains to define the borders of these regions. Recent studies found that the size of the song nucleus(More)
In seasonally breeding songbirds, the brain regions that control song behavior undergo dramatic structural changes at the onset of each annual breeding season. As spring approaches and days get longer, gonadal testosterone (T) secretion increases and triggers the growth of several song control nuclei. T can be converted to androgenic and estrogenic(More)