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Voltage-gated sodium channels perform critical roles for electrical signaling in the nervous system by generating action potentials in axons and in dendrites. At least 10 genes encode sodium channels in mammals, but specific physiological roles that distinguish each of these isoforms are not known. One possibility is that each isoform is expressed in a(More)
Na(+) channel clustering at nodes of Ranvier in the developing rat optic nerve was analyzed to determine mechanisms of localization, including the possible requirement for glial contact in vivo. Immunofluorescence labeling for myelin-associated glycoprotein and for the protein Caspr, a component of axoglial junctions, indicated that oligodendrocytes were(More)
Antibodies that immunoprecipitate (125)I-alpha-dendrotoxin-labelled voltage-gated potassium channels extracted from mammalian brain tissue have been identified in patients with neuromyotonia, Morvan's syndrome, limbic encephalitis and a few cases of adult-onset epilepsy. These conditions often improve following immunomodulatory therapies. However, the(More)
The protein tyrosine kinase PYK2, which is highly expressed in the central nervous system, is rapidly phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in response to various stimuli that elevate the intracellular calcium concentration, as well as by protein kinase C activation. Activation of PYK2 leads to modulation of ion channel function and activation of the MAP(More)
Efficient and rapid propagation of action potentials in myelinated axons depends on the molecular specialization of the nodes of Ranvier. The nodal region is organized into several distinct domains, each of which contains a unique set of ion channels, cell-adhesion molecules and cytoplasmic adaptor proteins. Voltage-gated Na+ channels - which are(More)
Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta (RPTPbeta) expressed on the surface of glial cells binds to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored recognition molecule contactin on neuronal cells leading to neurite outgrowth. We describe the cloning of a novel contactin-associated transmembrane receptor (p190/Caspr) containing a mosaic of domains(More)
We have investigated the potential role of contactin and contactin-associated protein (Caspr) in the axonal-glial interactions of myelination. In the nervous system, contactin is expressed by neurons, oligodendrocytes, and their progenitors, but not by Schwann cells. Expression of Caspr, a homologue of Neurexin IV, is restricted to neurons. Both contactin(More)
Accumulation of Na(+) channels at the nodes of Ranvier is a prerequisite for saltatory conduction. In peripheral nerves, clustering of these channels along the axolemma is regulated by myelinating Schwann cells through a yet unknown mechanism. We report the identification of gliomedin, a glial ligand for neurofascin and NrCAM, two axonal immunoglobulin cell(More)
Although many genes predisposing to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been identified, the biological mechanism(s) remain unclear. Mouse models based on human disease-causing mutations provide the potential for understanding gene function and novel treatment development. Here, we characterize a mouse knockout of the Cntnap2 gene, which is strongly(More)
Rapid conduction in myelinated axons depends on the generation of specialized subcellular domains to which different sets of ion channels are localized. Here, we describe the identification of Caspr2, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila Neurexin IV (Nrx-IV), and show that this neurexin-like protein and the closely related molecule Caspr/Paranodin demarcate(More)