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The chromosome 9p21 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD) locus contains one of the last major unidentified autosomal-dominant genes underlying these common neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously shown that a founder haplotype, covering the MOBKL2b, IFNK, and C9ORF72 genes, is present in the majority of cases linked to this(More)
We used an in vitro system based on streptolysin O-permeabilized MDCK cells to study the involvement of NSF, SNAP, SNAREs, and Rab proteins in polarized membrane transport of epithelial cells. In MDCK cells, transport from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the basolateral plasma membrane is inhibited by anti-NSF antibodies and stimulated by alpha-SNAP. In(More)
Recent studies have indicated a role for caveolin in regulating cholesterol-dependent signaling events. In the present study we have analyzed the role of caveolins in intracellular cholesterol cycling using a dominant negative caveolin mutant. The mutant caveolin protein, cav-3(DGV), specifically associates with the membrane surrounding large lipid(More)
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a fatal, autosomal recessive lipidosis characterized by a unique error in cellular trafficking of cholesterol. In the disease, unesterified cholesterol as well as sphingolipids accumulate in the late endosomes/lysosomes due to mutations in either of two recently isolated genes, NPC1 or NPC2. A metabolic and neurological(More)
Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder of children, characterized by selective death of neocortical neurons. To understand early disease mechanisms in INCL, we have studied Ppt1(Deltaex4) knock-out mouse neurons in culture and acute brain slices. Global transcript profiling showed deregulation of key neuronal(More)
Cathepsin D (CTSD) deficiencies are fatal neurological diseases that in human infants and in sheep are characterized by extreme loss of neurons and myelin. To date, similar morphological evidence for myelin disruption in CTSD knockout mice has not been reported. Here, we show that CTSD deficiency leads to pronounced myelin changes in the murine brain:(More)
The mechanisms of endosomal and lysosomal cholesterol traffic are still poorly understood. We showed previously that unesterified cholesterol accumulates in the late endosomes and lysosomes of fibroblasts deficient in both lysosome associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) and LAMP-1, two abundant membrane proteins of late endosomes and lysosomes. In this(More)
Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a fatal recessively inherited lysosomal cholesterol-sphingolipidosis. Mutations in the NPC1 gene cause approximately 95% of the cases, the rest being caused by NPC2 mutations. Here the molecular basis of a severe infantile form of the disease was dissected. The level of NPC1 protein in the patient fibroblasts was similar(More)
CLN5 disease, late infantile variant phenotype neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, is a severe neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the CLN5 gene, which encodes a lysosomal protein of unknown function. Cln5-deficiency in mice leads to loss of thalamocortical neurons, and glial activation, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We have(More)