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A new aspect of cell membrane structure is presented, based on the dynamic clustering of sphingolipids and cholesterol to form rafts that move within the fluid bilayer. It is proposed that these rafts function as platforms for the attachment of proteins when membranes are moved around inside the cell and during signal transduction.
The chromosome 9p21 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD) locus contains one of the last major unidentified autosomal-dominant genes underlying these common neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously shown that a founder haplotype, covering the MOBKL2b, IFNK, and C9ORF72 genes, is present in the majority of cases linked to this(More)
Cholesterol plays an indispensable role in regulating the properties of cell membranes in mammalian cells. Recent advances suggest that cholesterol exerts many of its actions mainly by maintaining sphingolipid rafts in a functional state. How rafts contribute to cholesterol metabolism and transport in the cell is still an open issue. It has long been known(More)
We have reconstituted polarized protein transport in streptolysin O-permeabilized MDCK cells from the TGN to the basolateral surface and to the apical surface. These transport steps are dependent on temperature, energy and exogenously supplied cytosol. Using this in vitro system we show that a whole tail peptide (WT peptide) corresponding to the cytoplasmic(More)
Cholesterol is an essential structural component in the cell membranes of most vertebrates. The biophysical properties of cholesterol and the enzymology of cholesterol metabolism provide the basis for how cells handle cholesterol and exchange it with one another. A tightly controlled--but only partially characterized--network of cellular signalling and(More)
We used an in vitro system based on streptolysin O-permeabilized MDCK cells to study the involvement of NSF, SNAP, SNAREs, and Rab proteins in polarized membrane transport of epithelial cells. In MDCK cells, transport from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the basolateral plasma membrane is inhibited by anti-NSF antibodies and stimulated by alpha-SNAP. In(More)
Recent studies have indicated a role for caveolin in regulating cholesterol-dependent signaling events. In the present study we have analyzed the role of caveolins in intracellular cholesterol cycling using a dominant negative caveolin mutant. The mutant caveolin protein, cav-3(DGV), specifically associates with the membrane surrounding large lipid(More)
In this study, we compared the transport of newly synthesized cholesterol with that of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. The arrival of cholesterol on the cell surface was monitored by cyclodextrin removal, and HA transport was monitored by surface trypsinization and endoglycosidase H digestion. We(More)
A characteristic neuropathological feature of Alzheimer's disease is the cerebral deposition of amyloid plaques. These deposits contain beta A4 amyloid peptide, a cleavage product of the transmembrane protein amyloid protein precursor (APP). Despite numerous studies on the processing of the different APP isoforms in non-neuronal cells, little is known about(More)
Cerebral plaques containing beta-amyloid (beta A4) represent an invariant pathological feature of Alzheimer disease (AD). beta A4 is proteolytically generated from its parent molecule, amyloid precursor protein (APP). In non-neuronal cells beta A4 has been shown to be secreted via a pH-sensitive and endocytosis-dependent pathway, and this process, when(More)