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BACKGROUND In China, the New Co-operative Medical System (NCMS), a rural health insurance system, has expanded nationwide since 2003. This study aims to describe prenatal care use, content and costs of care in one county where prenatal care is included in the NCMS and two counties where it is not. It also explores the perceptions of stakeholders of the(More)
BACKGROUND Infertility is common and in vitro fertilization (IVF) is a widely used treatment. In IVF the need increases and the effectiveness and appropriateness decrease by age. The purpose of this study was to describe allocation of resources for IVF by women's age, socioeconomic position, area of residence and treatment sector (public vs. private) and to(More)
BACKGROUND The collection of information on infertility treatments is important for the surveillance of potential health consequences and to monitor service provision. STUDY DESIGN We compared the coverage and outcomes of IVF children reported in aggregated IVF statistics, the Medical Birth Register (subsequently: MBR) and research data based on(More)
After identification of an important research question and selection of an appropriate study design, waste can arise from the regulation, governance, and management of biomedical research. Obtaining regulatory and governance approval has become increasingly burdensome and disproportionate to the conceivable risks to research participants. Regulation and(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to study the role of menopausal status and physical activity on quality of life. METHODS A total of 1,165 Finnish women aged 45-64 years from a national representative population-based study were followed up for 8 years. Study participants completed the Health 2000 study questionnaire and follow-up(More)
BACKGROUND Since 2003, the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) has been implemented throughout rural China, usually covering delivery services in its benefit package. The objective of this study was to compare the difference of utilization of delivery services, expenditures, and local women's perceived affordability between women with and without(More)
A person's birthweight is inversely related to their cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk, and preliminary data suggest that the birthweights of offspring are also inversely related to parental CVD mortality risk. In a cohort of pregnant Finnish women, we assessed the relation between birth dimensions of the offspring and maternal characteristics,(More)
This study aimed to investigate whether the use of female sex hormone drugs during pregnancy is a risk factor for subsequent breast and other oestrogen-dependent cancers among mothers and their children and for genital malformations in the children. A retrospective cohort of 2052 hormone-drug exposed mothers, 2038 control mothers and their 4130 infants was(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to determine the effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy on women's symptom reporting and quality of life in a randomized trial. METHODS 1823 women participated in the Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy (EPHT) Trial between 1999 and 2004. Women were randomized to open-label continuous combined hormone therapy or(More)
BACKGROUND: Elevated pregnancy estrogen levels are associated with increased risk of developing breast cancer in mothers. We studied whether pregnancy weight gain that has been linked to high circulating estrogen levels, affects a mother's breast cancer risk. METHODS: Our cohort consisted of women who were pregnant between 1954-1963 in Helsinki, Finland,(More)