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Formation of lasting memories is believed to rely on structural alterations at the synaptic level. We had found that increased neuronal activity down-regulates Nogo receptor-1 (NgR1) in brain regions linked to memory formation and storage, and postulated this to be required for formation of lasting memories. We now show that mice with inducible(More)
Natural behaviors such as eating, drinking, reproduction and exercise activate brain reward pathways and consequently the individual engages in these behaviors to receive the reward. However, drugs of abuse are even more potent in activating the reward pathways. Rewarding behaviors and addictive drugs also affect other parts of the brain not directly(More)
This study assessed the effects of intermittent individual housing on behaviour and brain neurotrophins, and whether physical exercise could influence alternate individual-housing-induced effects. Five-week-old BALB/c mice were either housed in enhanced social (E) or standard social (S) housing conditions for 2 weeks. Thereafter they were divided into six(More)
Alcoholism is a lifelong disease often associated with emotional disturbances and a high risk of relapse even years after detoxification. To explore if cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus might be important for alcohol-induced brain adaptation, we analysed hippocampal neurogenesis and gliogenesis in adult C57BL/6 mice that consumed(More)
In this study, we analyzed how intermittent individual housing with or without a running wheel influenced corticosterone levels and survival of newly proliferated cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Female Balb/c mice, in standard or enhanced housing, were divided into groups that were individually housed with or without running wheels on every(More)
Both vitamin A deficiency and high doses of retinoids can result in learning and memory impairments, depression as well as decreases in cell proliferation, neurogenesis and cell survival. Physical activity enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and can also exert an antidepressant effect. Here we elucidate a putative link between running, retinoid signaling, and(More)
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