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Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) harbours a polymorphic upstream variable-number tandem repeat (u-VNTR). The MAOA-L allele of the u-VNTR leads to decreased gene expression levels in vitro and has been found to increase the risk of conduct disorder in males with childhood adversities. Early-life adversities have been associated with hypermethylation of the(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic variations in FKBP5, BDNF, P2RX7 and CACNA1 are current candidates for involvement in depression. METHODS The single nucleotide polymorphisms FKBP5:rs1360780, BDNF:rs6265 (Val66Met), P2RX7:2230912 (Gln460Arg) and CACNA1C:rs1006737 were genotyped in DNA from 457 depression cases (major depression, dysthymia, and mixed anxiety depression)(More)
Formation of lasting memories is believed to rely on structural alterations at the synaptic level. We had found that increased neuronal activity down-regulates Nogo receptor-1 (NgR1) in brain regions linked to memory formation and storage, and postulated this to be required for formation of lasting memories. We now show that mice with inducible(More)
BACKGROUND Environmental risk factors together with genetic vulnerability create a complex background to develop depression. METHODS We investigated the associations between COMT Val(158)Met and depression in a Swedish population-based sample of 405 depressed individuals (major depression diagnosis, dysthymia or mixed anxiety depression defined according(More)
Alcoholism is a lifelong disease often associated with emotional disturbances and a high risk of relapse even years after detoxification. To explore if cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus might be important for alcohol-induced brain adaptation, we analysed hippocampal neurogenesis and gliogenesis in adult C57BL/6 mice that consumed(More)
Pregnant women with epilepsy have to balance maternal and fetal risks associated with uncontrolled seizures against the potential teratogenic effects from antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Carbamazepine (CBZ) is among the four most commonly used AEDs for treatment of pregnant epileptic women. We previously reported that new-born children had a decreased head(More)
Natural behaviors such as eating, drinking, reproduction and exercise activate brain reward pathways and consequently the individual engages in these behaviors to receive the reward. However, drugs of abuse are even more potent in activating the reward pathways. Rewarding behaviors and addictive drugs also affect other parts of the brain not directly(More)
Nogo receptor 1 (NgR1) is expressed in forebrain neurons and mediates nerve growth inhibition in response to Nogo and other ligands. Neuronal activity downregulates NgR1 and the inability to downregulate NgR1 impairs long-term memory. We investigated behavior in a serial behavioral paradigm in mice that overexpress or lack NgR1, finding impaired locomotor(More)
This study assessed the effects of intermittent individual housing on behaviour and brain neurotrophins, and whether physical exercise could influence alternate individual-housing-induced effects. Five-week-old BALB/c mice were either housed in enhanced social (E) or standard social (S) housing conditions for 2 weeks. Thereafter they were divided into six(More)
Stress, such as social isolation, is a well-known risk factor for depression, most probably in combination with predisposing genetic factors. Physical exercise on the other hand, is depicted as a wonder-treatment that makes you healthier, happier and live longer. However, the published results on the effects of exercise are ambiguous, especially when it(More)