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OBJECTIVE The abuse potential of methylphenidate has been related to the drug's capacity to produce a rapid onset of blockade of the presynaptic dopamine transporter in the brain. An oral once-a-day osmotic controlled-release formulation of methylphenidate produces a more gradual rise in plasma methylphenidate concentration, compared with immediate-release(More)
Over the last decade, it has become possible to study theories of cognition using positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). These methods yield statistical parametric maps of changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) elicited by cognitive tasks. A limitation of these studies is that they provide no information about the(More)
We demonstrate the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection of neurotransmitter stimulation using the dopamine transporter ligands amphetamine and CFT (2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane) as pharmacological challenges. We demonstrate that the unilateral loss of a hemodynamic response to either amphetamine or CFT challenge by(More)
Positron emission tomography (PET) and carbon-11-labeled 2B-carbomethoxy-3B-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (11C-CFT or 11-WIN 35,428) were used as molecular markers for striatal presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporters in a unilateral Parkinson's disease rat neurotransplantation model. In the lesioned striatum, the binding ratio measured by the DA presynaptic marker(More)
We investigated the microglial response to progressive dopamine neuron degeneration using in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and postmortem analyses in a Parkinson's disease (PD) rat model induced by unilateral (right side) intrastriatal administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Degeneration of the dopamine system was monitored by PET(More)
BACKGROUND The dopamine transporter (DAT) is known to be a key regulator of dopamine, and recent studies of genetics, treatment, and imaging have highlighted the role of DAT in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The findings of in vivo neuroimaging of DAT in ADHD have been somewhat discrepant, however. METHOD Dopamine transporter binding was(More)
Neurophysiological studies of the brain in normal and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have indicated intricate connections for basal ganglia-induced control of signaling into the motor cortex. To investigate if similar mechanisms are controlling function in the primate brain (Macaca fascicularis) after MPTP-induced neurotoxicity, we conducted PET studies(More)
Cell-mediated immune response to human myelin basic protein was studied by the macrophage migration inhibition factor test in 17 autistic patients and a control group of 11 patients suffering from other mental diseases included in the differential diagnosis of the syndrome of autism. Of the 17 autistic patients, 13 demonstrated inhibition of macrophage(More)
Concentrations of IgA, IgG, and IgM were measured in 25 patients with Gaucher's disease. The mean of each was significantly higher than that generally observed in healthy adults. A direct correlation was noted between IgA and IgG concentrations and age. Patients who underwent splenectomy had IgM concentrations significantly lower than those of persons who(More)
Severe intrahepatic cholestasis occurred in a patient after taking nitrofurantoin, ampicillin, and cloxacillin. As only nitrofurantoin was known to cause cholestasis she was given cloxacillin again two years later. The cholestasis reappeared at once. A macrophage inhibition factor test confirmed that cloxacillin was the offending drug. Cloxacillin should be(More)